Antibiotics form part of a wider range of antimicrobial agents, a group that also includes antifungals, antivirals, antiprotozoal, and disinfectants. This group is also known as chemotherapeutic agents. The session is open for clinical pharmacology of antibiotics, Drug therapy, Pathophysiology, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, Drug screening, Characterization, Synthesis, and Assays for therapeutic efficacy, Drug disposition, Raw Materials for production, Clinical trials and Regulations, Structure-Activity relationship, Antibiotic prophylaxis, Synthesis of antimicrobials, New methods of testing antimicrobial activity, Synergism between different types of antimicrobials, Design, and testing of antimicrobial surfaces.
Antibiotic resistance acquired by bacteria, can be achieved through gene mutation or the acquisition of foreign resistance genes or a combined mechanism. The session is open for most common resistance mechanisms employed by bacteria, alteration of the antimicrobial, performing / introducing a mutation in the antimicrobial target site, active efflux of the antimicrobial across the cell membrane, types of antibiotic resistance, about horizontal gene transfer, molecular genetic work.
Certain antibiotics are effective against protozoans and fungi; toxicity is observed, even when the therapeutic dosage is administered in humans and animals. Viral antigens are resistant to antibiotics such as common cold, influenza and the present coronavirus and may be harmful when taken inappropriately.
Antibiotic misuse has been observed as a concern in the medical community. Many general principles can help you make decisions about initiating, selecting, and discontinuing antibiotic therapy. The therapies include; Outpatient therapy: This treatment lasts for about 28 to 90 days, depending upon what you are expecting from the treatment. Hospital therapy: Empirical administration of antibiotics as the first line of treatment of broader specificity.
Antibiotic resistance has been emerged as an important determinant of outcome for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). This is mostly due to the administration of inadequate antimicrobial treatment, which is most repeatedly related to bacterial antibiotic resistance. World Health Organization (WHO) classified Antibiotic resistance as a hazard, wherein the situation could turn pathetic in the future. Antibiotic resistance has spread across the world regardless of age and turned to be the challenge for the medical research .First line treatment though broader, hasn’t been effective. Bacteria have become resistant to antimicrobial agents as a result of chromosomal changes or the exchange of genetic material via plasmid. Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenic, and staphylococci, organisms are now resistant to all of the older antibiotics.
For patients getting chemotherapy, there is an expanded danger of disease because of a low WBC tally (neutropenia) caused by a dangerous impact of chemotherapy on the bone marrow. The most critical diminishment in mortality was seen in surveying prophylaxis with quinolones. For patients with hematologic tumour, anti-microbial prophylaxis is emphatically prescribed, ideally with a quinolone. Prophylaxis may likewise be considered for patients with strong tumours or lymphoma.
Antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria are increasingly prevalent in hospitals and the community. Research and production of new generation antibiotics to combat the new resistant strains has shown a very slow progress. The session covers synthetic tailoring, discovery of new scaffolds, designing screens to avoid rediscovering old scaffolds, repurposing libraries of synthetic molecules for use as antibiotics, Exploring microbial niches for products, molecular target selection, improving libraries to overcome resistance, Safety and efficacy, Vaccines available for the diseases, Phage and parasitic bacteria, Epidemiology and spread of microbes and resistance traits.
Microorganism are the root cause of various infectious diseases, wherein the bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoa. The mode of transmission of infection maybe through water, air, food and even through a carrier that affects humans, plants and animals. Emphasizing on pathogenesis of bacteria and their therapeutic measures, and conjunction of branches of Microbiology with other epidemiological disciplinary in relation to clinical efficacy, cure and prevention of diseases. Vaccine development has been the lifesaving against many infectious diseases which registered a great fatality.
First line of administration to out patients to treat bacterial infections antibiotics. Production of Analogues to existing antibiotic classes with added research has been the present task for Pharmaceutical companies. Pharmaceutical giants like Pfizer, Middlebrooks, Roche, Novartis AG, Bristol- Myers Squibb Co, Bayers Healthcare AG, Abbot Laboratories, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, Ltd., Daiichi Sankyo Company, Ltd., GlaxoSmithKline Plc, Eli Lilly and Co., and Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd hold the higher share in antibiotic markets. Despite having a market hold of USD 39.8, the antibiotic markets have seen a CAGR of 4.0% rise over the marginal years.
Clinical trials in the initial stages are being carried out extensively to at least reach the primary stage of establishing the drug safety, efficacy by pharmaceutical companies to persuade the regulatory body. But the results obtained haven’t shown a promising quality. Though the use of antibiotics is wide spread in medical field, yet the drug safety is a matter.
Chemotherapy has shown a serious side effect of low WBC count , which has an effect on bone marrow. Basic reduction in mortality was obtained looking over prophylaxis of quinolone drugs. Hematologic cancer patients with microbial prophylaxis are recommended with quinolone. Other lymphoma cancers may also consider prophylaxis treatment with antibiotics.