Pharmacology is the scientific study of drug action on biological systems. It is the study of the interactions between a living organism and drugs. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals. Pharmacological studies range from the effects of chemical agents upon subcellular mechanisms, to those that deal with the potential hazards of pesticides and herbicides, to those that focus on the treatment of major diseases by drug therapy. It involves examining the interactions between chemical substances and living systems, with a view to determining the properties of drugs and drug actions, including the drug molecules and drug receptors interactions and how these interactions elicit an effect.
Liposomes and nanoparticles: Nanoscale drug delivery systems using liposomes and nanoparticles are rising technologies for the rational delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment various ailments. Nanoparticles present possible dangers, both medically and environmentally.
The pharmaceutical industry is directly impacted by the research conducted with prescription drugs, vaccines, and OTC drugs being manufactured based on findings from the study of life sciences. Clinical trials are conducted to ensure that products being developed are tested on how well they work on individuals affected by the diseases or conditions they are created to treat.
Pharmacological tests are used to evaluate if a substance or plant extract is biologically active. There are many pharmacological tests and each test demonstrates various aspects that are important for the understanding of the mechanisms behind illnesses, their causes and cures. Many methods of pharmacological tests have been proposed for quantitative predictions in drug metabolism.
BCC Research report’s cover the latest pharmaceutical market and provide in-depth market analysis, forecasts, trends, patent analysis, and profiles of major players within the markets. Comprehensive analysis of clinical studies for biopharmaceuticals, prevention and treatment of certain cancers, coagulants and non-coagulants are all within the range of pharmaceutical markets. Drug devices, instrumentation and inhibitors are some of the many other areas covered.
Clinical Pharmacology has been practiced for centuries through observing the effects of herbal remedies and early drugs on humans. The pharmacologic effect that a medication has on the body is known as pharmacodynamics. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters become important because of the association between host drug concentrations, microorganism eradication, and resistance. Since long scientific advances allowed scientists to come together with the study of physiological effects with biological effects Receptor theory for drug effects and its discovery with clinical pharmacology has stretched out to be a multidisciplinary field and has contributed to the findings of drug interaction, therapeutic effectiveness and safety. Drug interactions and pharmacological compatibilities include the study of pharmacokinetics that includes the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of drugs. The pharmacologic effect that a medication has on the body is known as pharmacodynamics. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters become especially important because of the association between drug application, microorganism abolition, and resistance.
Food and Chemical Toxicology (FCT), an internationally renowned journal, that publishes original research articles and reviews on toxic effects, in animals and humans, of natural or synthetic chemicals occurring in the human environment with particular emphasis on food, drugs, and chemicals, including agricultural and industrial safety, and consumer product safety. Areas such as safety evaluation of novel foods and ingredients, biotechnologically-derived products, and nanomaterials are included in the scope of the journal. FCT also encourages submission of papers on inter-relationships between nutrition and toxicology and on in vitro techniques. Furthermore new areas such as safety evaluation of novel foods and biotechnologically derived products and inter-relationships between nutrition and toxicology are welcomed. The studies may address the physiological, biochemical or pathological changes induced by specific substances, techniques for assessing potential toxicity, including molecular biology or the mechanisms underlying toxic phenomena.
In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new medications are discovered.
Modern drug discovery involves the identification of screening hits, medicinal chemistry and optimization of those hits to increase the affinity, selectivity (to reduce the potential of side effects), efficacy/potency, metabolic stability (to increase the half-life), and oral bioavailability. Once a compound that fulfills all of these requirements has been identified, it will begin the process of drug development prior to clinical trials. One or more of these steps may, but not necessarily, involve computer-aided drug design. Modern drug discovery is thus usually a capital-intensive process that involves large investments by pharmaceutical industry corporations as well as national governments.
Environmental pharmacology is a new and emerging specialty of pharmacology. It involves the study of gene-environment interaction, toxin-environment interaction and drug- environment interaction. Environmental pharmacology entails the study of environmental science, medicine, ecology, genetics and chemistry. The impact of pharmaceuticals on the ecosystem has significance public health implications. The demand for more pharmaceuticals relative to world’s population growth may place the public at risk though the destruction of species. The entry of chemicals and drugs into the aquatic ecosystem is of a serious concern and empirical evidences are making these concerns more compelling.
Toxicology is the study of adverse effects of chemical, biological and physical agents in biological systems that establish the extent of damage in living organisms. It includes observing symptoms, mechanisms, detection and treatments of toxic substances, in relation to the poisoning of humans. It is the qualitative and quantitative study of the adverse effects of chemicals and other materials on living organisms. The dose of the substance is an important factor in toxicology, as it has a relationship with the effects on the individual. Factors that influence toxicity include the dose, the route of exposure, shape and structure of the chemical, the species, individual human factors and environment.
Recent advances in DNA repair are DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) are lesions caused by a variety of endogenous metabolites, ecological exposures, and cancer chemotherapeutic agents that have two reactive groups. The general feature of these diverse lesions is that two nucleotides on opposite strands are joined covalently. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are clearly correlated. The somatic mutation theory of cancer holds that these agents cause cancer by causing the mutation of somatic cells. A unique feature of inter-strand cross-links repair is that both strands of DNA must be incised to completely remove the lesion. Drug dosing guidelines accomplished in sequential steps to prevent creating multiple double-strand breaks. Understanding the specificity of mutagens in bacteria has led to the direct implication of certain environmental mutagens in the causation of human cancers.
Applied pharmacology is the study of how drugs affect body. Drugs can be used to both maintain a healthy lifestyle and treat or cure disease. Pharmacology deals with the basis, therapeutics uses of drugs, physiological action and properties of action. Applied pharmacology helps to measure the data obtained from the clinical studies and can correlate it with the clinical processes. It also provides explanation for different drugs having connected with the pharmacological action. It gives clarifications about drug interactions and the action of various drugs on the many organs in the body when they are in diseased state with side effects contradictions. Applied pharmacology makes it possible not only to explain to the doctor the action of drugs in the human body, but also in evaluating the efficacy of drugs in a particular disease condition.
Pharmacology of vascular endothelium deals with alterations of endothelial cells and the vasculature play a central role in the pathogenesis of a broad spectrum of the most dreadful of human diseases, as endothelial cells have the key function of participating in the maintenance of patent and functional capillaries.
This market is expected to increase from nearly $17.1 billion in 2015 to $23 billion by 2020, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.1% from 2015 to 2020.
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters become important because of the association between host drug concentrations, microorganism eradication, and resistance.Since long scientific advances allowed scientists to come together with the study of physiological effects with biological effects.
The Pharmaceutical industry's long successful strategy of placing big bets on a few molecules, promoting them heavily and turning them into blockbusters worked well for many years, but its R&D productivity has now plummeted and the environment’s changing.
Neuropharmacology is the study of how drugs affect cellular function in the nervous system, and the neural mechanisms through which they influence behavior. There are two main branches of neuropharmacology: behavioral and molecular. Neuropharmacology is the study of how drugs affect cellular function in the nervous system, and the neural mechanisms through which they influence behavior. There are two main branches of neuropharmacology: behavioral and molecular. It is dealt with the interactions of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, neurohormones, neuromodulators, enzymes, second messengers, co-transporters, ion channels, and receptor proteins in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
The global revenue for single use technology reached $1.4 billion and $1.7 billion in 2013 and 2014, respectively. This market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11.7% to nearly $3.0 billion for the period 2014-2019.
Nursing Pharmacology is the study of how guidlines for nurses with regard to the substances that interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. It deals with the research, discovery, and characterization of chemicals which show biological effects and the illumination of cellular and organism function in relation to these chemicals. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals. It encompasses mechanisms of drug action, drug composition and properties, interactions, toxicology, therapies, medical applications, and antipathogenic capabilities.
Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species). More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.
Biochemical pharmacology is based on principles of drug action. Biochemical pharmacology uses the methods of biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology, structural biology, cell biology, and cell physiology to define the mechanisms of drug action and how drugs influence the organism by studies on intact animals, organs, cells, subcellular compartments and individual protein molecules.
An overview of biopharmaceutical single-use technologies, which aid the manufacturing process in overcoming such complex issues as sterilization and critical manufacturing parameters. Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2013 and 2014, and projections of CAGRs through 2019.
Clinical research is the study of health and illness in people. It is the way we learn how to prevent, diagnose and treat illness. Clinical research describes many different elements of scientific investigation. Simply put, it involves human participants and helps translate basic research (done in labs) into new treatments and information to benefit patients. Clinical trials as well as research in epidemiology, physiology and pathophysiology, health services, education, outcomes and mental health can all fall under the clinical research umbrella.
The future of clinical trials illustrated as follows. Access and engage the patient online – Attract patients to the trial – Consent patients & convert to subjects – Remotely manage subjects & collect data. The sponsor plans to engage the patient through social media, such as Facebook, and regular e-mail updates in order to attract the patient to the trial, and once the patient agrees to learn more about the trial, the sponsor mails the patient a package containing mobile health devices, which collect medical diagnostic data and sends that data to the sponsor. The patient turns on the tablet, which contains an electronic consent and a video of a physician explaining the clinical trial in detail. Humanization in digital media is believed to be an effective tool that is used to communicate with patients. During the clinical trial, the subject is able to access live physicians either virtually or through nearby medical community centers. Remote nurses visit the subject at their homes to collect samples. In addition, the patient uses the mobile health device to automatically upload study data directly to the sponsor's EDC database.