Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology which deals with biophysics and biochemistry regarding the molecular structure of biological macromolecules. The aims of structural biology include a comprehensive understanding of the molecular shapes and forms embraced by biological macromolecules and extending this knowledge to understand how different molecular architectures are used to perform the chemical reactions that are central to life. Biologists show great interest in understanding related processes such as protein folding, protein dynamics, molecular modeling, drug design, and computational biology. This process of determination of structures of proteins, nucleic acids may take years as the shape, size and assemblies of these molecules may be altering the function.
Computational Analysis seeks to Provide a forum for the exchange of information in the field of computational molecular biology and post genome bioinformatics, with emphasis on the documentation of new algorithms and databases that allows the development of biomedical research and bioinformatics in a significant manner.
Structure Prediction by Hybrid Approach depends upon the hydrophobic interactions are a noteworthy power in protein folding and various hydropathy scales have been produced to evaluate the relative hydrophobicity of the amino acids. Hydropathy profiles can be used to examine the surface features of proteins in order to generate hypotheses that can be confirmed experimentally. Sequence analysis can be explained as a process of exposing DNA, RNA or peptide sequence to a wide range of analytical methods in order to understand its structure, function and evolution. The methods include sequence alignment, biological databases. The sequences are being compared to that of the known functions, harmoniously to understand the biology of the organism which gives the new sequence. Synergistic use of three-dimensional structures and deep sequencing is done to realize the effect of personalized medicine.
In order to react to changes in their immediate environment, cells must be able to receive and process signals that originate outside their borders. Cells consistently communicate by the release of chemical signals. They are often secreted from the cell and released into the extracellular space. Regulation of gene expression comprises a comprehensive range of mechanisms that are used by cells to regulate the production of specific gene products, and is familiarly termed as gene regulation. regulated to produce the end point response. Sophisticated programs of gene expression are extensively observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, adapt to new food sources, or respond to environmental stimuli. Eventually the gene expressions can be adjusted, starting from transcription, initiation to post translation modification of a protein.
Molecular modeling is an accumulation of computer based strategies for representing, deriving and manipulating the reactions and structures of molecules. These properties are reliant on these three-dimensional structures. Molecular modeling encompasses all methods, theoretical and computational, used to model or mimic the behavior of molecules. Molecular dynamics (MD) deals with the study of physical movements of the atoms and molecules using computer simulation method, so it is referred to as one of the type of N-body simulation. The atoms and molecules are allowed to interact for a fixed period of time, giving a view of the dynamic evolution of the system. The trajectories of atoms and molecules are commonly determined by solving them numerically using Newton’s equations of motion for a group of collaborating particles. The forces between the particles and their potential energies are calculated using inter-atomic potentials or molecular mechanics force fields.
Bioinformatics is an integrative field that creates strategies and programming instruments for understanding biological information. Bioinformatics provides a forum for the exchange of information in the fields of computational molecular biology and post-genome bioinformatics, with emphasis on the documentation of new algorithms and databases that allows the development of biomedical research and bioinformatics in a significant manner. Structural Bioinformatics databases also offer enormous possibilities for gathering analysis of available information about biomacromolecules and in broadening the possibility of analysis.
Biological databases play a fundamental role in bioinformatics. A database is an organized collection of data. It refers both to the data and to the organization of that data. As a result of enormous research which is being done in Structural biology massive data has been produced. In order to assemble the data in a catalogued manner, bioinformatics databases are used. Various databases have been created to store biological data, such as sequence databases, structure databases, signaling pathway databases, etc. They offer scientists the opportunity to access a wide variety of biologically relevant data, including the genomic sequences of an increasingly broad range of organisms
Drug Design or rational design or rational drug design, is the creative method of finding innovative medications supported the data of a biological sciences target. The drug is most commonly associate degree organic little molecule that activates or inhibits the perform of a bio-molecule like a macro-molecule organic chemistry, that successively ends up in a therapeutic profit to the patient. Including the modest sense, drug design associates the planning of molecules that are opposite in form and charge to the bio molecular target with that they move and thus can bind to that. Drug design of times however not essentially depends on laptop modeling techniques. This sort of modeling is typically observed as computer-aided drug design. Biomarkers consist of tools and technologies that aids in dynamic and powerful approach to learn the spectrum of neurological diseases in knowing the prediction, cause, diagnosis, progression, regression, or outcome of treatment of a disease. Biomarkers are the measures used to perform a clinical assessment such as blood pressure or cholesterol level and are used to monitor and predict health states in individuals or beyond populations so that appropriate therapeutic intervention can be planned.
Biophysics is the combination of Biology and Physics, which helps to study physical phenomena and physical processes in living things, on scales spanning molecules, cells, tissues and organisms. Biophysicists use the principles and methods of physics to understand biological systems. Modern biophysics also encompasses physical measurements with computational models to find out the detailed physical mechanisms underlying the behavior of complex biological systems. It is an interdisciplinary science, closely related to quantitative and systems biology. Biophysics is a growing enterprise world-wide, driven primarily by the widespread realization of the major contributions made to biological science by a combination of truly state-of-the-art physical measurements with modern molecular biology.
Biomolecules are too small to observe in detail, even with the most advanced light microscopes. These may include macro and micro molecules along with natural products. These may be endogenous and exogenous in nature. Structural biologists generally use these methods to determine the structures of identical molecules in a huge quantity at a time. Scientists use these methods to study the “real states” of the biomolecules. Some of the best methods include X-ray-crystallography, Cryo-Electron Microscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Ultra-fast laser Spectroscopy etc.
The main aim of integrating structural biology data into cancer research is to design and discover novel and effective drugs to cure the disease. Structural biology combined with molecular modelling mainly aims at drug designing. Today’s most encouraging cancer therapy is immunotherapy. These treatments stimulate the patient’s immune system to destroy his/her cancer cells. Some drugs recognize specific molecules on the surface of cancer cells while others can bind to immune cells to help them kill cancer cells. This can be done mostly in two ways such as
Viruses show different morphologies in their shapes and sizes. These are smaller in structures than the bacteria. Though these are simpler as an individual, when formed in group they are exceptionally diverse both in replication strategies and structures. Many viruses are important human pathogens. Many techniques such as X-ray crystallography, mass spectrometry, fluorescence microscopy, multi-angle light scattering, differential scanning fluorimetry, isothermal titration calorimetry, surface plasmon resonance and fluorescence anisotropy. These structure in-turn are used to develop anti-viral drugs and vaccines.
Structural biology means at understanding biomolecules at atomic level. All the aspects in structural biology investigate appear to be complex. Research methods have proved to be successful in solving many of the complexities such as protein structure determination, functional annotations and drug designing. As they are solved on large scale, a gap forms between the structure data and the sequence data. Bridging this gap is one of the important tasks. Some of the complex areas are signaling proteins, protein folding and intrinsically disordered proteins.
Structural biology is one of the developing fields. In the course of time many improvents have been taking place. Huge numbers of solved structures have exaggerated rapidly. The field of drug design and drug discovery has been advanced. Functional annotations are another field where progressions are rapidly evolving. Alterations in-order-to improve the effectiveness of prevailing tools can also be noted. Remarkable advances have been made in the areas of technical imaging and advancement of hybrid methods to understand the structure and function of proteins.