Nanomedicine is simply the application of nanotechnologies in a healthcare setting and the majority of benefits that have already been seen involve the use of nanoparticles to improve the behaviour of drug substances. Today, nanomedicines are used globally to improve the treatments and lives of patients suffering from a range of disorders including ovarian and breast cancer, kidney disease, fungal infections, elevated cholesterol, menopausal symptoms, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, asthma and emphysema. Nanomedicine has the potential to develop radical new therapies based on an unprecedented control over both intracellular processes and the extracellular environment at the nanometer scale. To create precise solutions for intricate medical challenges in the area of wound healing, tissue regeneration and mitochondrial disease physical scientists, medical doctors, and industrial partners, work closely in the Radboud Nanomedicine Alliance. The National Nanotechnology Initiative expects new commercial applications in the pharmaceutical industry that may include advanced drug delivery systems, new therapies, and in vivo imaging.
Nano Science is a technology conducted at the Nano scale. It is the applications and study related to extremely small things that can be used around all the other fields of science, like chemistry, biology, physics, engineering and Materials sciences. These particles have the ability to control individual atoms and molecules .Nanotechnology has a huge potential to provide technological solutions to many problems in science, energy, physics, environment al and medical fields.
Molecular Nanotechnology a technological revolution which seeks nothing less than perfectibility. Molecular manufacturing technology can be clean and self-contained. Molecular Nano manufacturing will slowly transform our connection towards matter and molecules as clear as the computer changed our relationship to information and bits. It will help accurate, inexpensive control of the structure of matter.
Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometers in size. In nanotechnology, a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit with respect to its transport and properties. Particles are further classified according to diameter. Ultrafine particles are the same as nanoparticles and between 1 and 100 nanometers in size, fine particles are sized between 100 and 2,500 nanometers, and coarse particles cover a range between 2,500 and 10,000 nanometers.
Nanomaterials are characterized as materials with no less than one outside measurement in the size extent from around 1-100 nanometers. Nanoparticles are items with each of the three outside measurements at the nanoscale1. Nanoparticles that are normally happening (e.g., volcanic powder, ash from woodland fires) or are the accidental side effects of ignition procedures (e.g., welding, diesel motors) are generally physically and synthetically heterogeneous and frequently termed ultrafine particles. Built nanoparticles are deliberately delivered and planned with particular properties identified with shape, size, surface properties and science. These properties are reflected in mist concentrates, colloids, or powders. Regularly, the conduct of nanomaterials might depend more on surface region than molecule arrangement itself. World interest for nanomaterials will rise more than more than two times to $5.5 billion in 2016. Nanotubes, nanoclays and quantum dabs will be the quickest developing sorts. The vitality stockpiling and era and development markets will offer the best development prospects. China, India and the US will lead picks up among countries.This study dissects the $2 billion world nanomaterial industry. It presents recorded interest information for the years 2001, 2006 and 2011, and gauges for 2016 and 2021 by material (e.g., metal oxides, chemicals and polymers, metals, nanotubes), market (e.g., social insurance, gadgets, vitality era and capacity, development), world area and for 15 nations.
Drug delivery describes the method and approach to delivering drugs or pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotic to their site of action within an organism, with the goal of achieving a therapeutic outcome. Issues of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics are important considerations for drug delivery. Designing and developing novel drug delivery systems, with a focus on their application to disease conditions. Preclinical and clinical data related to drug delivery systems. Drug Delivery and Translational Research is a journal published by CRS, providing a unique forum for scientific publication of high-quality research that is exclusively focused on Drug Development and translational aspects of drug delivery. Drug distribution, pharmacokinetics, clearance, with drug delivery systems as compared to traditional dosing to demonstrate beneficial outcomes. Short-term and long-term biocompatibility of drug delivery systems, host response. Biomaterials with growth factors for stem-cell differentiation in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Devices for drug delivery and drug/device combination products.
Tissue engineering is one of the fast growing scientific area in this era which is used to create, repair, replace cells, tissues and organs by using cell or combinations of cells with biomaterials . biologically active molecules which helps to produce materials which very much resembles to body's native tissue/tissues.
Nano pharmaceuticals offer the ability to detect diseases at much earlier stages and the diagnostic applications could build upon conventional procedures using nanoparticles. Nano pharmaceuticals represent an emerging field where the sizes of the drug particle or a therapeutic delivery system work at the Nano scale. In the pharmaceutical industry, a long standing issue is the difficulty of delivering the appropriate dose of a particular active agent to specific disease site. Nano pharmaceuticals have enormous potential in addressing this failure of traditional therapeutics which offers site-specific targeting of active agents. Such precision targeting via Nano pharmaceuticals reduces toxic systemic side effects, resulting in better patient compliance. In today world economy, a pharmaceutical industry faces enormous pressure to deliver high-quality products to patients while maintaining profitability. Therefore pharmaceutical companies are applying nanotechnology to enhance or supplement drug target discovery and drug delivery. Nano pharmaceutical reduces the cost of drug discovery, design & development and enhances the drug delivery process.
Nanotechnology is widely used for development of paediatric medicine based on its variable characteristics. The large surface to volume ratio characteristic of nanomaterials is helpful to inhibit bacteria attachment to the organs and promote nonbacterial cell adhesion. The unique surface energetics of nanomaterials because of their significantly greater surface area compared with micron-sized materials. Because of the tissue growing properties of nanomaterials and antimicrobial properties of both nanoparticles and Nano modified surfaces have a number of applications within paediatric medicine. Some of these applications include anti-infection, tissue regeneration, drug delivery and bio-sensing.
Nano medicine affects almost all the aspects of healthcare. Nano medicine helps to engineer novel and advanced tools for the treatment of various diseases and the improvement of human bio systems using molecular Nanotechnology. Cardiovascular diseases, Neurodegenerative disorders, Cancer, Diabetes, Infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS are the main diseases whose treatment can be benefitted by using Nano medicine.
Biomaterials from healthcare viewpoint can be defined as materials those possess some novel properties that makes them appropriate to come in immediate association with the living tissue without eliciting any adverse immune rejection reactions. Biomaterials are in the service of mankind through ancient times but subsequent evolution has made them more versatile and has increased their usage.
Nano materials and devices play a major role in the field of pharmaceutical nanotechnology. Nanomaterials exhibit properties remarkably different from the properties of the bulk material due to the large surface area to volume ratio that increases the solubility and rate of absorption. Novel nanostructures will helpful for use as artificial tissue engineering and also help to integrate nanodevices with the nervous system that will restore vision and hearing, and build artificial limbs through the implant of new tissue. Nanotechnology is applied in the pharmaceutical industry in such areas as nanomedicine, tissue engineering, nanorobots, biosensors, biomarkers, image enhancement devices and implant technology. Investigations are currently being carried out on, among others, liposomes, dendrimers, metallic nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, CNTs, quantum dots and nanofibres.
At present, nanotechnology has been widely applied to the area of drug development. Nanoparticle-based therapeutics has the ability to overcome biological barriers and to deliver hydrophobic drugs and biologics effectively to the target sites of disease. The complexity of nanoparticles as multi-component 3D structures require careful design and engineering and reproducible scale-up and manufacturing process to achieve a consistent product. The safety and efficacy of nanoparticle-based medicines can be influenced by minor variations in multiple parameters and need to be carefully examined in preclinical and clinical examinations. Finally, nanoparticle-based medicines may have to represent additional development challenges and regulatory considerations compared with conventional medicines. Efforts are being made to produce unique category of therapeutic agents while there is generally a lack of regulatory standards in the examination of nanoparticle-based medicines.