Food and Chemical Toxicology (FCT), its an study of poisonous and harmful substances. Toxicity Testing allows us to identify the toxicity of chemicals we use and gives information about the potency of their effects. As well as being true for industrial chemicals this is also true of pharmaceuticals and the normal products formed by plants, bacteria and fungi. Knowing whether a chemical can cause cancer, allergic reactions or abnormalities in unborn children is important to human health, and the process of discovering this information is known as assessment of hazard. This process is distinct from assessing risk which determines whether it is likely to actually cause harm in a given situation.
Environmental pharmacology is a new and emerging specialty of pharmacology. It involves the study of gene-environment interaction, toxin-environment interaction and drug- environment interaction. Environmental pharmacology entails the study of environmental science, medicine, ecology, genetics and chemistry. The impact of pharmaceuticals on the ecosystem has significance public health implications. The demand for more pharmaceuticals relative to world’s population growth may place the public at risk though the destruction of species. The entry of chemicals and drugs into the aquatic ecosystem is of a serious concern and empirical evidences are making these concerns more compelling.
The in vitro toxicology market is expected to reach USD 8.74 Billion by 2022 from an estimated USD 6.34 Billion in 2017, at a CAGR of 6.6%. The key factors driving the growth of this market include opposition to animal testing, growing demand for in vitro technology in the European market, new and promising technologies, and increasing R&D expenditure to detect toxicity at an early stage.
Recent advances in DNA repair are DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) are lesions caused by a variety of endogenous metabolites, ecological exposures, and cancer chemotherapeutic agents that have two reactive groups. The general feature of these diverse lesions is that two nucleotides on opposite strands are joined covalently. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are clearly correlated. The somatic mutation theory of cancer holds that these agents cause cancer by causing the mutation of somatic cells. A unique feature of inter-strand cross-links repair is that both strands of DNA must be incised to completely remove the lesion. Drug dosing guidelines accomplished in sequential steps to prevent creating multiple double-strand breaks. Understanding the specificity of mutagens in bacteria has led to the direct implication of certain environmental mutagens in the causation of human cancers.
Applied pharmacology is the study of how drugs affect body. Drugs can be used to both maintain a healthy lifestyle and treat or cure disease. Pharmacology deals with the basis, therapeutics uses of drugs, physiological action and properties of action. Applied pharmacology helps to measure the data obtained from the clinical studies and can correlate it with the clinical processes. It also provides explanation for different drugs having connected with the pharmacological action. It gives clarifications about drug interactions and the action of various drugs on the many organs in the body when they are in diseased state with side effects contradictions. Applied pharmacology makes it possible not only to explain to the doctor the action of drugs in the human body, but also in evaluating the efficacy of drugs in a particular disease condition.
Nursing Pharmacology is the study of how guidlines for nurses with regard to the substances that interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. It deals with the research, discovery, and characterization of chemicals which show biological effects and the illumination of cellular and organism function in relation to these chemicals. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals. It encompasses mechanisms of drug action, drug composition and properties, interactions, toxicology, therapies, medical applications, and antipathogenic capabilities.