Dr. Daniel Benetti is a Professor and Director of Aquaculture at the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. He has over 30 years experience in aquaculture worldwide. He specializes in developing and advancing hatchery, land-based (recirculating Aquaculture Systems and flow-through) and open ocean growout technologies of marine fish, including but not restricted to, cobia, Seriola, mahi, tuna, snapper, grouper, pompanos and flounder. He has published over 130 articles in aquaculture technology and production, has extensive experience with the industry and has been a consultant for the private and government sectors in several counttries in Latin America, U.S., Europe, Asia, Caribbean, Africa, Australia and the Middle East.
Advances in hatchery, nursery and growout technologies of high-value marine fish are presented. Some of the important marine fish species whose aquaculture technologies are available in the Americas are cobia (Rachycentron canadum), hamachi/kampachi (Seriola rivoliana, S. lalandi/S. dorsalis), pompanos (Trachinotus carolinus), Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus guttatus), mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), hirame or Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus), totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) – among others. Progress towards full cycle farming of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and yellowfin tuna (T. albacares) is also being reported, as well as efforts to develop technology to close the cycle of blackfin tuna (T. atlanticus), a new species for aquaculture.
Modern hatcheries using advanced technologies are beginning to produce mass quantities of juveniles for growout primarily in exposed, high-energy area of the open ocean using both submersible cages such as SeaStations and Aquapods and improved models of traditional gravity cages. Recently, progress in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) and flow-through methods are allowing the development of land-based commercial nursery and growout operations. The potential has been identified, investments are solid, and the industry is growing and posed to expand exponentially in the next few years. Recent relevant technological advances and the most important challenges faced by researchers and the industry are presented.
Recent developments in hatchery technology of a large number of commercially and ecologically important species are resulting in the availability of high quality fingerlings and juveniles for stocking ponds tanks, RAS and cages. Cobia, snapper, Seriola, grouper, mahi-mahi, bluefin and yellowfin tuna, among others, are now routinely stocked for growout to market. These developments have been recently described by Benetti et al. (2010; 2015). Closing the life cycle of these species and gaining control over the microbiology of the hatchery systems including water quality, live feeds and the micrtobiome of early development stages of sensitive larvae are enabling the producing of juveniles to stock cages or land based system to be grown to market size along with the potential for restocking the oceans. Evidence is presented to support the statement that aquaculture is not only about producing wholesome seafood for human consumption and providing jobs and other socio-economic benefits. Beyond all that, aquaculture has been playing, and will continue to play, a major role in conservation of the species. Indeed, responsible aquaculture will ensure the future of tuna fishery stocks conservation as well as those of other commercially and ecologically important species.
Osman Samsun is Professor at Faculty of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, Sinop University. He is working as Head of Department of Fishing Gear and Process Technology. He obtained his Ph. D. degree in 1990 from Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Ondokuz May University. His research interest includes conservation biology, fisheries science, population dynamics and fisheries sustainability.
The growing human population in the world needs animal protein is important. Aquaculture is a very important resource for meeting this need. However, it is imperative that seafood resources be operated sustainably. Many countries are aware of this fact and take various measures.
The fishery management, which is changing according to the countries, should be basically based on scientific principles and researches. In practice, the priority needs of countries and their socio-political preferences sometimes adversely affect sustainable fisheries management
The importance, as well as the necessity, of fisheries management has been widely acknowledged and well documented over the past decades. The obligation to ensure sustainable exploitation of renewable fisheries resources has been recognized by many coastal states and considerable effects made.
In the last decade some Ä±mportant symptoms, like conflicts between interested users, decreasing CPUE of target species, increasing fishing effort, decreasing mean catch size of target species etc., have been noticed in Turkish marine capture fisheries which call for a reappraisal of fisheries management. Fishery in Turkey are characterized as multispecies, multi gears and targeted both demersal and pelagic fish stocks as in most of other Mediterranean countries. Turkey, especially anchovy, horse mackerel, bonito used for catching fish such as purse seiners fishing capacity has reached quite large. Length of these boats, motor power, and very sophisticated fish finding equipment, etc., is more advanced than all the other countries in the Black Sea. Large- scale fishery is characterized by trawls and purse seines which produce about 90 percent of the total catch.
The sciences on fisheries, especially fisheries economics and management have been well developed in countries like Norway, Iceland, Canada, UK, Japan, Spain where marine culture is also rich, thus fisheries have long been preserved as a tradition. The objectives of fisheries management policy in Turkey and Europa are set by State Planning Organization (SPO). Managing fishery resources in a sustainable way is the main objective of the fisheries policy. Therefore region-based preliminary fisheries plans have been designed. The objectives set out in these plans include rebuilding of depleted stocks, long-term resource management, introduction of fishing rights and sustainability of fishing opportunities for fishermen.
Principal impediments to more effective fishing management are as follow:
Lack of historical and actual data, lack of economic and biologic monitoring of fisheries, lack of coordination amongst stakeholders, lack of legislation for establishing right based fisheries management, lack of legislation for establishing fisheries co-management and stakeholder participation into management process at the local level, difficulties of adoption of ecosystem based fisheries management.
This presentation describes the current situation and what to do about the future comes to sustainable fishing in European countries and Turkey. It is desired that the subject be discussed in the scientific world and awareness creation.
Maria Eugenia Vega-Cendejas is a biologist graduated from the Faculty of Sciences, UNAM. She obtained a Master's degree in Sciences (Biology) in 1983, being distinguished by the Gabino Barreda Silver Medal at the end of her studies. In March of 1998 she has received the degree of Doctor in Sciences (Biology) in the same Faculty. Currently, her research has focused on the demersal communities of the Yucatan Platform and Canal, as well as the deepwater zone of the Gulf of Mexico. She has graduated six students at doctoral level, 17 of Master and 14 of bachelor degree. She has coordinated 26 Research Projects on structure and function (trophic weft) of the fish community in various coastal ecosystems and protected areas of the Yucatan Peninsula. She has also participated in service projects with the objective of evaluate the environmental quality and health status of the Gulf of Mexico. She has presented papers in 107 national and international congresses, has 37 publications in indexed journals, thirteen chapters of books, fiven memoirs in congresses and four books that contribute to the knowledge of the ichthyofauna in the region. She is a member of the National System of Investigators (level II), member of the Mexican Academy of Sciences and is part of the evaluation committee of several specialized journals and member evaluator of CONACYT.
During two oceanographic campaigns (November 2015; August 2016) with 18 sampling stations (shrimp trawl net), it was determined the spatial variation and with respect to depth gradient of the demersal fish community in the Yucatan Platform and Channel. Spatially, three group of stations were stablished in base of latitude and two considering depth (<100, 101-200 m). The ecological parameters, dominant species, spatial and causal associations of the species with the environmental variables (temperature, salinity, depth, organic carbon) were estimated. A total of 161 species were recorded (27 orders and 52 families), with Syacium papillosum as dominant due to its high biomass (10.3%), relative density (11.7%) and occurrence. It was followed in representativeness by Haemulon aurolineatum, Eucinostomus gula and Upeneus parvus. By means of multivariate analysis, no inter-annual change in the fish assemblages was detected, however among group of stations and by depth gradient, significant differences were found. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that depth gradient was the principal factor through which community structure changes. Results obtained contribute to the knowledge of this great ecosystem’s biodiversity and reflect that is in good health, considering species richness and abundance.
International Aquaculture Consultant, Malaysia
Rodrigo Ozorio (RO) is a researcher at Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR), Portugal. RO has more than 20 years of experience in aquaculture research, special emphasis on the fish nutrition. He holds MSc and PhD degrees from Wageningen University and Research Centre (WUR), The Netherlands. RO has expertise on nutritional dynamics of fish and the economic potential of new aquaculture species based on a set of husbandry and physiological criteria. He participated in over 15 national and international projects (overall budget of 2.0 million euros), including four projects as scientific leader dealing with new aquaculture systems and sustainable alternative for intensive marine aquaculture. He supervised 8 PhD theses and 15 MSc theses and he authored over 56 scientific publications
The current study evaluated the microalgae replacement by dry seaweed (Ulva rigida) in the reproductive success and biochemical composition of pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) during broodstock conditioning. Seven hundred and twenty oysters were divided in four dietary groups (3 tanks/diet; 60 oysters/tank). Each group were fed for 11 weeks with one of the following diets: 100% live microalgae blend (Alg); 75% Alg + 25% seaweed (SW); 50% Alg + 50% SW or 100% SW. The Alg was composed by 33% Isochrysis galbana clone T.ISO and 66% diatoms (75% Skeletonema costatum + 25% Chaetoceros calcitrans). Gonadal maturation was reflected in the physiological condition of the individuals. All treatments, except 100% SW, showed an increase in condition index and were fully matured at the end of the trial, with the best physiological condition observed in two groups: 75% Alg + 25% SW and 100% Alg. Conversely, oysters fed 100% SW showed a decrease in the reproductive condition and a delay in gonadal development. The results of the respirometry showed an inhibition of oxygen consumption in oysters fed 100% SW, which is in line with the condition index and gonadal maturation. Protein and total lipids content increased during the conditioning, whereas glycogen decreased. Oysters fed 75% Alg + 25% SW had higher protein and total lipids content and lower glycogen content (main energy reserve of gametogenesis) than the other treatments. In addition, this group showed the highest percentage of viable (free-living) veliger larvae after induction of spawning, even higher than the 100% Alg group. The current study demonstrated that it is possible to replace 25% of microalgae with U. rigida in the broodstock conditioning of the pacific oysters, minimizing the operative cost in bivalve hatcheries.
Sitti Raehanah Muhamad Shaleh has completed her PhD at the age of 34 years from Universiti Putra Malaysia and Postdoctoral Studies from Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD, La Jolla California USA. She is the Deputy Director for Research and Innovation at the Borneo Marine Research Institute, a center of excellence in Universiti Malaysia Sabah. He has published more than 35 papers in reputed journals in aquaculture field and microalgae study. She also conducted research on the impact of Harmful Algal Blooms on the aquaculture industry. Apart from doing research, she also supervises postgraduate students and teaches undergraduate subjects such as seaweed farming, fish handling and processing etc.
Tropical sea cucumber Holothuria scabra, commonly known as sandfish has a high market demand for their high protein and bioactive substances which exhibit the antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties. The increasing demand however, has led to the over-fishing of this species and sandfish has also been listed as endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). Sandfish is one of the most widely cultured sea cucumber species in the Indo Pacific regions. Unfortunately, most of the sandfish farmer relies almost entirely on the wild seeds. For sustainable aquaculture, seed production at the hatchery is necessary to ensure a continuous supply of seeds for farming as well as for wild stock restoration. This program that involved environmental survey, breeding and ranching was initiated through the organizational structure of the local community in the northern tip of Borneo. A series of training workshop on the seed production technique via artificial spawning was conducted to teach farmers and fishermen of both genders from all over the state of Sabah. A simple but practical ocean hatchery powered by solar energy was built on the water at the farming site to ease the release of the hatchery produced juvenile directly into the sea. For the sustainability of the program, the facilities established were maintained by the committed community members with continuous expert support from the institution and other government agencies. This project requires a cooperative effort for a long-term program for community welfare.
Full professor at the Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University of Sultan Moulay Slimane, Beni-Mellal, Morocco. He is a Director of research and Head of the Environmental Engineering team, He is also Editor-in-chief of the Journal of Water and Environmental Sciences and an Environmental and aquaculture expert.
Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture or ecologically intensive aquaculture is an appropriate way to improve fish productivity and strengthen ecosystem services.
According to the FAO (2016), inland aquaculture production accounts for 64% of total aquaculture production, thus exceeding marine production by 14%.
Cage aquaculture is currently one of the fastest growing segments of aquaculture production in the world and forecasts indicate that its potential for development is considerable.
Thus, the development of combined aquaculture systems may constitute a relevant ecological intensification pathway at the level of Moroccan dam reservoirs. FAO (2013) proposed the adoption of an Ecosystemic Approach in Aquaculture. It involves combining a semi-intensive or intensive cage culture with an extensive traditional polyculture management based on the restocking operations carried out by Water and Forests administration.
In order to properly manage the potential of dam reservoirs for the development of rural aquaculture, a fish management system (SAP) has been developed to accurately estimate the optimum production to be developed, the number and size of location of the concessions to be allocated, species and storage densities to be fixed, rules and technical conditions to be respected. The SAP will also propose the appropriate management methods for a better valuation of products and better involvement of local populations (Hasnaoui & Droussi, 2017).
The fish management system was structured around four axes:
• Development of extensive aquaculture to ensure a profitable artisanal fishery through the optimization of fish productivity of dam reservoirs.
• Development of small-scale cage aquaculture adapted to the context and conditions of each environment.
• Establishment of a mechanism for managing aquaculture resources that benefits local populations.
• Promotion of organic aquaculture for a better valorization of fish products.
Rossita Shapawi is a Professor of Aquaculture at the Borneo Marine Research Institute (BMRI) of Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS). She is the Director of BMRI since Dec 2014. She received her Doctorate Degree in Aquaculture from UMS. She was also an alumnus of University of Tasmania, Australia where she completed her M. App. Sc. in 2001. Her research interest is on aquaculture nutrition and feed development.
A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of five experimental diets (two levels of protein and two levels of carbohydrate; coded as 45P25C, 45P30C, 40P25C and 40P30C, respectively, and a diet containing 50% protein and 20% starch (50P20C) as a control diet) on growth performance, diet digestibility and protein sparing of hybrid grouper, TGGG (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, â™€ × E. lanceolatus, â™‚). These diets were fed to triplicate groups of fish juveniles (12.12±0.08g mean initial weight) at satiation level for 57 days. At the end of feeding trial, body weight gain (576.62-618.91%), feed conversion ratio (1.48-1.59), survival rate (93.33-98.33%) and body indices (except for viscerasomatic index) were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments. In contrast, the proximate compositions of whole-body fish and liver were dependent on the test diets. Meanwhile, ADC of protein and lipid were considered high in all experimental diets (ADC protein 88.12-92.12% and ADC lipid 95.51-97.89%). However, poorer ADCs especially for dry matter were observed in diet 40P25C (39.85% as compared to 51.02-65.96% in other diets). Overall, diet with protein level lowered to 45% and carbohydrate level increased to 30% (45P30C) performed as good as the control diet. It can be concluded that TGGG showed the ability to utilize dietary carbohydrate as an energy source to spare protein.
Magdalena Jakubowska has completed her PhD in 2016 at the University of GdaÅ„sk (Poland) and started to work at the National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, in the Department of Fisheries Oceanography and Marine Ecology. So far, her research was mostly focused on determining the effects of different environmental and anthropogenic factors on various aspects of animal's physiology and behaviour, mainly invertebrates but recently also fish.
Exploration of renewable energy sources and the urgent need to reduce emission of greenhouse gases, make the wind energy an important alternative to energy derived from fossil fuels. Therefore, offshore wind farms are being constructed at an increasing rate around the world, mainly in marine shelf regions. One of the potential threats for ecosystems connected with operation of wind farms is introduction of magnetic (MF) or electromagnetic fields (EMF) into the environment by submarine cables. Despite the scale of existing and planned investments and ability of many marine animals to perceive the Earth’s magnetic field, research related to impacts of anthropogenic magnetic fields on marine organisms is very scanty, especially concerning EMF.
The aim of our study was to assess the effect of artificial EMF on the behaviour (avoidance, burrowing behaviour and bioturbation potential), rates of physiological processes and bioenergetics (energy balance - food consumption, respiration, ammonia excretion, scope for growth), total geno- and cytotoxicity responses in Hediste divericolor from the Baltic Sea. This polychaete is also one of the most important components of marine benthic communities along the Atlantic coast, where it might be potentially exposed to artificial magnetic fields connected with operation of numerous wind farms.
Organisms were exposed to EMF during four different experiments lasting 8-12 days, using the experimental setup equipped with spatially uniform EMF generator consisting of two Helmholtz coils. The experimental value of magnetic induction (1 millitesla) corresponded with the range of values in the vicinity of typical submarine cables, transferring alternating electric current.
Adil Aghzar has completed his PhD at the age of 30 years from University of Abdelmalek Essaidi, Tetouan, Morocco and from University of Vigo, Spain. He is actually an assistant professor of Environmental Engineering and Aquaculture at the Superior School of Technology-Khénifra, University of Moulay Ismail, Morocco. He is an associate member of the Research Team “Marine Genetic Resources”, Faculty of Biology, University of Vigo. He has published 5 papers in SCI journals.
Suspension cultures of the Mediterranean blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a long-lasting tradition in the Alboran Sea (SE Iberian Peninsula). The goal of this study was to characterize current seed batches used to enhance culture density in rafts and longlines in the Alboran Sea. Samples consisted on 100 individuals of M. galloprovincialis from three identified origins upon information afforded from aquaculturists of the Alboran Sea, i.e. a Mediterranean stock from Italy, an Atlantic stock from Galicia, and a local adult rocky sample from the Alboran Sea. DNA was extracted and purified with the method FENOSALT. Individuals were genotyped using a set of ten microsatellites which were used to disentangle the genetic contribution that commercial stocks imported to the Alboran Sea could have on the local population. The three seed stocks collected from Alboran aquaculture facilities showed high gene diversity in all microsatellites (He > 0.800) but the genetic divergence was significant in all pairwise comparisons, especially the Italian stock. Those results indicate that either inadvertently or deliberately several mussel gene pools are being admixed in the Alboran Sea. Such admixture could bring about a desirable heterosis in mytiliculture but also environmental concerns and risks of genetic homogenization among naturally divergent gene pools of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean.
Dr. Adeboyejo, Akintade completed his Ph.D. at the age of 45years old from the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo state, Nigeria and has been a lecturer in Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria since 1998. He is currently a senior lecturer and specializes in Fish Biology & Ecotoxicology. He has published more than 28 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as course coordinator of entrepreneurial studies within the University. He is member of Fisheries societies home and abroad.
The study investigated lethal toxicity effects of Dichlorvos on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings (Mean weight 8.02±2.56g and length 10.15±1.02cm) in a static renewable bioassay during 96hours exposure period. Treatment were in triplicates with concentrations 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0µg/l. Data on fish mortality and physico-chemical water parameters (Dissolved oxygen, Carbondioxide, pH and Temperature) were taken and subsequently subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P<0.05. Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMART) was used to separate differences between means. The mean lethal concentration (LC50) was determined by Probit analysis. The water quality parameters of the control showed mean Temp. 29.0±0.10C; pH 7.27±0.3; CO2 0.41±0.1mg/L; and DO 5.83±0.4mg/L. However, the treatment showed significant variations from the control (at P<0.05) except for temperature. Behavioural responses of the fish included frequent surfacing, erratic swimming, mucus secretion, bleeding, skin bleaching, colouration of the abdomen and shivering. 96- Hours LC50 value was 1.51µg/L. The derived hematological indices of White Blood Cell, Lymphocytes, Red Blood Cell, Hemoglobin (HB), Packed Cell Volume, Neutrophil, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration etc; varied significantly from the control at P<0.05. The changes observed indicated that hematological parameters can be used as bio- indicators to illicit stress responses in fish after exposure to different concentrations of DDVP.
Dr Nyan received his Ph.D.in Marine Biology from the University of Tasmania, Australia under Colombo Plan Fellowship. On his return he rejoined as assistant lecture at Rangoon Arts and Science University. Later he joined Fisheries Corporation to head the R&D department. In 1983, he became Project Manager for ADB Inland Fisheries Development Project and technical counter-part for JICA projects in Myanmar. In 1988, he joined the FAO of the UN and served in aquaculture projects in Indonesia, Vietnam and the Philippines culminating the position of Chief Technical Advisor. Dr Nyan had supervised 13 Master’s theses for Zoology Department, Rangoon University and also published a book entitled ‘Prawn Culture in Burma’ in 1984. He has published and presented over 80 papers and co-authored a chapter in the book by Yoram Avnimelech on Biofloc Technology: A Practical Guidebook (2012 & 2014).
Alfredo Olivera Gálvez is currently working as a Professor at the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (UFRPE). He received the Doctoral degree on Biology of Aquatic organisms from the São Paulo State University (UNESP) and completed his Master’s degree on Aquaculture from the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC). Dr. Alfredo has authored several publications in various journals and books. His publications reflect his research interests in Bioremediation, aquaculture, seaweeds and microalgae production. He is serving as a member or fellow in National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq – Brazil).
The integrated multi-trophic system is a low-cost strategy to minimize the waste of compounds nitrogen and phosphorus, reducing the possibility of disease outbreaks, as well as reduced environmental problems. This concept is extremely relevant, because aquaculture production has increased waste discharge and effluent nutrients’ concentration, generating environmental and social challenges. Seaweed as Gracilaria dominguensis can through their natural process assimilate the nitrogenous and phosphate compounds, thus improving the water quality of the integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system (IMTA), which brings advantages to animal growth reared, in addition, producing seaweed biomass. Results of our researches indicated that the use of red seaweed in IMTA systems can enhance the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei performance, mainly in their growth showing positive aspects, both economic and environmental, in an IMTA. This is probably related to the fact that the shrimp graze directly on the seaweed and on the biofilm formed on its surface. The use of seaweed in and with shrimp may be a complementary source of food through in natural consumption or grazing of the biofilm that forms on the surface of the seaweed, improving the shrimp zootechnical performance. Additionally, seaweed on IMTA can combine bioremediation capacity with commercial value.
National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico
Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Brazil
Osman Samsun is Professor at Faculty of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, Sinop University. He is working as Head of Department of Fishing Gear and Process Technology. He obtained his Ph. D. degree in 1990 from Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Ondokuz May University. His research interest includes conservation biology, fisheries science, and population dynamics and fisheries sustainability.
Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus ) is a very commercial fish species along the coasts of Black Sea. Its fishing is conducted with different fishing gears including purse seine and pelagic trawl. They feed on zooplankton, mainly copepods crustaceans, fish eggs and larvae. It is Atlanta-Mediterranean including Black Sea from Norway to Angola. It seems in all Turkish seas with the most abundant in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Total catch amount of Anchovy in the Black Sea in 2016 was about 102595 tons. However, total catch amount has been reported 385 000 tons in 2007. In other words, total production declined dramatically in the last decade.
The Black Sea currents create a migration of pelagic fishes for biological nutrition, spawning and wintering cover. Hence, in particular, such as anchovies, an important fishing of pelagic fish is discussed in this article on the issues that need to be done. In this sense, common policies are required in Black Sea. In Black Sea region there have been many surveys. In the context of international projects, long-term monitoring conducted a lot of research is currently being conducted by researchers from different countries in this research. There is not enough prohibition of size of hunting for anchovy in Georgia, where huge amounts of small-sized hunting of anchovies. Georgia which was founded hunting anchovy for fish meal and processed food factories.
The purpose of this article, the Black Sea, which is the most important fish species in this imported and also exported to the EU countries, the measures necessary for the operation of profitable stocks in the Black Sea coastal countries and international level, as well as to facilitate open discussion and knowledge of the subject concerned, the necessary measures to be retrieved. This study, the amount of aquaculture in Turkey in recent years, how hunting equipment and technologies are affected by many parameters that affect the current situation has been analyzed. Anchovies in Turkey, in recent years, on the research carried out in previous years were compared with the results of the new research.
In recent years, especially the last two hunting season is one of the important fishing centers on the Black Sea province of Sinop anchovy fishing approximately 15 days and then quickly drain is very thought-provoking and need to focus on the shores of Georgian issue. This topic has been on anchovy in the old and new in comparison with the results of the research were injured, anchovy fishery management carefully maintained. Especially in Turkey, the Coast Guard is renewed every year and with increasing knowledge of the hardware and the control of fishery products as fishing is a very important. During these audits, the fishermen are also subject to various training programs in certain periods. However, the inexistence of larger fish in our samples may suggest that there is still some heavy fishing pressure on E. encrasicolus stocks in the Black Sea.
Last fishing years (2017), the estimate of fishing mortality (F = 0.95) is some higher than natural mortality (M = 0.70), and according to exploitation rate (E = 0.58), E. encrasicolus fishery currently sustains with heavy fishing pressure
As Turkey, other Black Sea countries shall adopt international regulations in order to protect and control anchovy stocks and all countries of Black Sea Region must apply same regulations together.
Ahmed holds a M.Sc. in Aquaculture Management and Planning and a Ph.D. in the Aquaculture. The author has over 25 year of professional experience in aquaculture and commercial settings of various aquaculture activities. He has more than ten peer reviewed publications in in reputed journals and more than ten technical reports and attended many national and international conference and workshops. The author work as Scientist in WorldFish (Egypt) we work in partnership with private sector and national organization to create sustainable development in aquaculture sector.
The in-pond raceway systems IPRS technology was selected for testing in Egypt as a means to address the increasing demand for aquaculture products in the face of mounting economic and environmental constraints to the growth of Egyptian aquaculture production. The first IPRS system developed at WorldFish facility at Abbassa composed of two production cells (12x3x1.5 m) that installed in one feddan (4200m2) pond. The cells were used as the fish containment units, while the remaining open area of the pond was used as the waste treatment area. All cells were equipped with the white water units for continuous water movement at speed 7-10cm/second and aeration during the entire production season. The earthen pond was subdivided by dikes to allow full circulation of the water through the raceways and around the entire pond before re-entering the raceway cells. The IPRS cells were stocked with fast growing tilapia strain (G9, Abbassa) in July 2017. Fish demonstrated high growth rate and average weight increased from 30 to 370g and from 90 to 550g within 16 weeks.
The result indicates that the production system increase productivity, contributing to food security and produce high quality fish. Partial economic analysis indicated that the system in first operational season covered operational cost. The study concluded that tilapia demonstrate high growth performance when cultured in IPRS. Further, the production system maximizes water use efficiency in fish farming to meet the increasing pressure on water availability in Egypt.
Rafidah Othaman is a senior lecturer of Aquauclture at Borneo Marine Research Institute (BMRI) of Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS). She has received her PhD from Universiti Putra Malaysia in 2013. Her research interest is on immunology and aquatic diseases.
Maternal antibodies from Tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) broodstocks to eggs and larval were evaluated following vaccination with inactivated Vibrio harveyi. Tiger grouper broodstock (mean BW 8.66 ± 0.09 kg, n=19) were immunised intraperitoneally (IP) and followed by a booster two weeks post vaccination, while control non-immunised broodstock were injected IP with PBS. The serum antibody level against V.harveyi was monitored two weeks post vaccination and monthly up to 5 months post vaccination. This study showed that immunized broodstock showed significantly (P<0.05) higher in specific IgM antibody level against V. harveyi as compared to control, which in turn induced a marked increased (p<0.05) in specific antibody in their eggs and larvae. The lysozymes activity also showed a significant higher (P<0.05) in broodstocks and their eggs throughout 5 months study. While in larvae, lysozymes level only showed a siginificant higher (P<0.05) in 3th month post vaccination post vaccination. The findings from this study suggested inactivated V.harveyi vaccines able to stimulate the immune response in broodstock and passively transferred to their eggs and larvae.
Present study was conducted to evaluate the sub lethal effects of commercial Endosulfan on haematological and histopathological parameters of fresh water fish Channa punctatus. The fishes were segregated into five groups where first group was considered as control while other groups were considered as treated. In treated groups fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentration of Endosulfan (0.25 ppb, 1.0 ppb 2.0 ppb & 3 ppb) for 96 hours. The obtained results indicated significant alteration in haematological and histopathological parameters of Channa punctatus due to Endosulfan intoxication. There was significantly (p < 0.05) increased number of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) observed in treated groups, while significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in number of red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) were observed in treated group compared to control group. In experimental groups the Histopathological alterations were observed including disturbance of cartilaginous core, atrophy, shortening of secondary gills lamellae, gills epithelial lifting, lamellar disorganization, hyperplasia and vacuolations in liver, while necrosis, haemorrhages, loss of secondary lamellae, blood congestion, secondary gills lamellae fusion, closure of cell membrane, curling, pyknosis, blood congestion and necrosis in villi, whereas excessive goblet cells formation, detachment, fusion and shortening in villi of intestine were reported. It was concluded that as the concentration of Endosulfan was increased, there was an effect of Endosulfan on increased number of haematological and histopathological parameters. This study could be useful for measuring possible environmental risk to aquatic life.
Clarke Edwin O was awarded his Ph.D. at the age of 43years old from the Lagos State University, Ojo-Lagos State, Nigeria and has been a lecturer in Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria since 1998. He is currently a senior lecturer and specializes in Plankton Dynamics Aquatic Pollution, & Ecotoxicology. He has published more than 30 scientific papers in reputable journals and was the immediate past Head of the Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Biology, within the University. He is member of Fisheries society of Nigeria and other professional associations
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) has been known to be persistent in the environment and bio-accumulates in aquatic organisms. The OCP levels were measured in water, sediment and shell fishes (Panaeus monodon, Callinectes pallidus, Mercinaria mercinaria and Lithorina lithorea) from three (3) state: Lagos State (Lagos lagoon and Badagry creek), Cross River State (Cross river estuary), Akwa Ibom State (Imo river estuary) and (Qua iboe river estuary), between November 2015 to June 2016, using Gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The highest mean concentration of OCPs were recorded in Lagos lagoon and Badagry creek. The levels in sediment ranged from 0.150 ± 0.012 µg/kg (Alpha HCH) in Lagos lagoon to 243.500 ± 138.000 µg/kg (ppDDT) in Badagry creek. The Concentration in shell fishes ranged from 0.250 ± 0.009 µg/kg (Alpha HCH) in Lagos lagoon to 67.380 ± 22.860 µg/kg (Endosulfan II) in Badagry creek for Callinectes pallidus and from 1.310 ± 0.210 µg/kg (alpha HCH) to 143.500 ± 71.892 µg/kg (Eldrin Aldehyde) in Badagry creek for Penacus monodon. Aldrin was detected in all the samples from the five water bodies. The results showed that OCP levels in all shellfish samples analysed were above the maximum acceptable limits of 0.01ppm (10 µg/kg) set by EU and Federal Ministry of Environment for aquatic life protection.
Fatima-Zahra MAJDOUBI has completed her studies on food processing engineering at the age of 24 years from Agronomic and Veterinary Institute Hassan II. She is actually a PhD student on biology at the faculty of sciences and techniques , University of Sultan Moulay Slimane, Morocco.
The present study focuses, on one hand, on evaluating the changes of females’ relative fecundity through the breeding season. On the other hand, it investigates the relationship between the spawning periods and the females’ relative fecundity, weight and age.
The induced breeding operations were performed during two consecutive breeding seasons (2016 and 2017). The Broodfish, used in this study, originated from the Deroua Fisheries Station, Morocco. fish breeders were reared in earthen ponds and feed on phytoplankton (Diatomophyceae and Chlorococcales) (Farid et al, 2014) available naturally in those ponds. During the two seasons, 44 and 36 females were manipulated respectively. The mean of ova production of these two sets of males, was respectively 135.78 g ± 5,64 g (ova /kg of female body weight) and 142.80 g ± 10.69 g (ova /kg of female body weight)
The results revealed that there is no period effect on fecundity through the breeding season. However, the correlation test showed that the females’ relative fecundity correlated positively with the spawning periods. For the two successive seasons, the correlation (r²) was 0.18 and only 0.085, respectively. Furthermore, Females ‘fecundity was negatively related to their age (-0.283 and -0.108, respectively).
Contrariwise and through the two breeding seasons, the females’ weight and oocytes weight were significantly positively correlated. At the first season, the correlation was 0.668, while at the second season the correlation has recorded 0.536.
Ouaissa khadija, PhD student in environmental science at the Laboratory Management and Valorization of Natural Resources at Sultan Moulay Slimane University Faculty of Science and technology in Beni Mellal. This research project gave birth to numerous papers in congresses, meetings and Journées, as well as in publications.
The increase in world population, as well as the increase in average fish consumption per capita, resulting from the improved quality of life of people in developing countries, has led to an explosion in demand for fish. To meet this need and conserve marine resources, global aquaculture has developed strongly over the last 30 years. This carnivorous and omnivorous fish farm requires the distribution of fish for fish whose composition is in accordance with their nutritional needs, a nutritionally ideal diet would consist of small wild fish from sea fishing, due to As a result, plants have become the main source of protein and oil for farmed carnivorous fish and contribute to the development of sustainable aquaculture. (Medale and al., 2013)
To improve their tolerance, fish feed manufacturing has included plant treatment processes by the extrusion system. Luquet and Rumsley (1978) This process allows concentrating the protein content of vegetable flours by eliminating the maximum amount of fiber, to reduce their antinutritional content, of their more digestible food compounds, especially carbohydrates to improve their palatability and minimize the risks of the deterioration of the environment. (O.Einen and al., 2007). For economic and ecological reasons, the comparative trial of the three foods (Food A, Food B and Food C) resulted in the selection of food B, which had specific characteristics (low waste and better zootechnical performance). In this sense, the recommendations of this test is the interaction between the economy and the environment have made it possible to continue the research, the company is thinking of developing its own ideal and ecological rainbow trout feed which includes the criteria for sustainable development and application on food.
Based on these recommendations, two ecological formulas were developed with inversely different percentages of animal and vegetable matter. The standard formula rich in raw material of plant origin with 60% that animal matter 40%. The results obtained from this experiment show that the formulations elaborated have better zootechnical performance results (conversion index, survival rate and specific growth rate ...) and growth for a short time than that obtained from the reference feed B.
Anouar Ouizgane has is presently pursuing his PhD degree on biology at the faculty of sciences and techniques, University of Sultan Moulay Slimane, Morocco
The growth of fish in the rearing ponds is affected by the food availability, abiotic factors, stocking density of each species and the interactions between the different species reared in the pond namely predation and competition for food and space.
In order to monitor the growth of the warm water fish (largemouth bass, Nil Tilapia, Silver Carp, Common carp and grass carp) reared in a polyculture system, a study was carried out in the Deroua Fisheries station (Fkih Ben Salah, Morocco) from June to December 2013 in nineteen 2000 m² earthen ponds.
The results showed that the daily growth rates of different species: largemouth bass, Nil Tilapia, Silver Carp, grass Carp and Common carp are ranging from 0.24 to 4.97 g/day ; 1.16 to 4.62 g/day ; 2.48 to 23.08 g/day ; 3.05 to 23.8 g/day and 7.71 to 30.38 g/day respectively. These rates are highly dependent on stocking density, food availability, water chemical and physical factors quality especially temperature, water transparency and the availability of phytoplankton and marcophytes.
Assia Kritihi, 28 years old, is a Phd student in veterinary aquaculture from Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques Beni Mellal, Morocco. She is preparing her doctorate in collaboration with Ain Aghbal salmon farm in Azrou, Morocco. Since becoming a PhD in 2014, she has presented twenty-six papers at national and international conferences and eight articles in peer-reviewed journals.
In aquaculture hatcheries, intensification is the main source of all animal health issues in the production, especially organic. The development of commercial aquaculture in Morocco began around the year 2000, since aquaculture has become a major industry in continental areas. Intensive rainbow trout farming is by far the most important activity (Hall, 2015) . The hatching and Trout production takes place in onshore freshwater tanks, the water temperature is around 10°C to 14°C, and in addition to certain other factors it is an essential element of the bacterial disease called Bacterial Cold Water Disease (BCWD), caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, threatens wild salmonids and spreads around the world and causes substantial economic losses (Devlin and al., 1995). In addition to being transmitted horizontally from infected fish to a healthy one, Flavobaterium psychrophilum can be transmitted from infected parents to their off spring via sexual fluids, the pathogen could be present inside or outside the eggs and even in the ovarian fluid, thus promoting the negative impacts of this pathogen(Ekman and al., 1995). In our study, we are looking for a new biocontrol agent against this pathogen taking into account the problem of the emergence of new bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics as well as the integration of exploitation in the sustainable development policy and its organic production strategy that requires the total elimination of the use of antibiotics. So we first used the actinobacteria producing active substances and we found very good results. We also tested essential oils known for their powerful antibacterial effect and the results found were very encouraging.