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Oral Session 1:
- Aquatic Science | Aquaponics | Aquatic Health and Hygiene | Aquaculture Nutrition & Supplies
Title: Importance of adrenal tissues of fishes as reliable stress biomarkers and agents of environment impact assessment.
Dr. S. Srivastava is currently Associate Professor and Head in the Dept. of Zoology, MM College, Modinagar, India. She has 15 years of teaching and more than 25 years of research experience and has several research papers in reputed national and international journals and made presentations in various national and international Conferences. She has also coauthored two textbooks of fishery biology and fishery science.
As in other vertebrates, in fishes too, the adrenal tissues are the source of the synthesis and storage of the corticosteroids and catecholamines â€“ the stress hormones. The corticosteroids are secreted by the interrenal tissues and the catecholamines are secreted by the chromaffin tissues of the adrenal gland. These stress hormones trigger a broad suite of morphological, biochemical and physiological changes which are considered as important indicators of stress induced changes. Experiments were conducted on two fishes,Â Carassius auratus and Heteropneustes fossilis that were exposed to moderate hypoxiaÂ Â (30-50 % dissolved oxygen saturation) and acute hypoxia (<30 % oxygen saturation). Their adrenal tissues were examined electron microscopically for the stress responses in the interrenal and chromaffin tissues. Differential stress responses were observed in these fishes â€“ moderate hypoxia induced interrenal hyperactivity and chromaffin stimulation in C.auratus as against no noticeable changes in H.fossilis. The latter was stressed only under conditions of acute hypoxia showing degenerative changes in the interrenal cells and increased production of adrenaline granules in the chromaffin cells, however these changes were much reduced in comparison to that in C.auratus. Hypoxic environments impose considerable stress upon aquatic organisms to which they respond differently. The findings of the present study indicate the role of the interrenal tissues and the chromaffin tissues in countering stress and their significance as important and reliable stress biomarkers.
Title: Aquaculture and Marine biology is the major industry for the development of health, basic need of daily life, create employment, generate income, stronger economy, reducing financial crises, global Poverty and hunger in the developing countries of the world particularly in south Asia.
Mr. Muhammad Usman, Former Director General of Agricultural Research System, Government of Pakistan who retired from service after a spotless career of about 32 years with senior level experience on research and development of integrated agricultural production, industries, Agriculture & Horticulture and bioenergy on a sustainable way.He is consider as the senior most scientist in the world, always participated in the international conferences as a plenary speaker, keynote speaker, renowned speaker, organizing committee member as well as moderator of the conferences around the world. Mr. Usman established â€œProminent Agro Based Industries, Agro Based Industries and Consultancy SDN BHDâ€ in Malaysia and â€œFoundation for Rural Development in Pakistanâ€, with primarily aims to work on integrated agricultural project for Rural Development through improvement in agriculture and consultancy services to the formers at Malaysia.
The aim of presentation consists of aquaculture, marine biology, health, daily use of life, employment, income, economy, crises, poverty and hunger were studied and reported that aquaculture and marine biology is the major industry for the development of health, basic need of daily life, create employment, generate income, stronger economy, reducing financial crises, global Poverty and hunger in the developing countries of the world particularly in south Asia. Â The study reported that Aquaculture is the breeding, rearing and harvesting of fish, shellfish, plants, algae and other organism in all types of water environments including ponds, river, lakes and the ocean. Aquaculture is consisting of two main types i. fresh water plants and animals ii.Â Marine water plants and animal. The main difference between fresh water and marine life is freshwater fish lives in stream, rivers and lacks that have salinity of less than 0.05 percent, however marine life refers to fish living in ocean and seas. The study reported that Marine biologyÂ is the scientific study of organisms that live in salt water. AÂ marine biologist, by definition, is a person that studies, or works with a salt water organism or organisms. In other words Marine biology is the study of marine organisms, their behaviors and interactions with the environment. Marine biologists study biological oceanography and the associated fields of chemical, physical, and geological oceanography to understand marine organisms. The study reported that the total countries available in the world are 225, consist of (Developed countries = 49, developing countries = 150, observer state = 4, state without partial recognition = 8, unrecognized state = 14). Similarly, South Asia comprises the countries of Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka.Â In the light of above study, it is proposed that aquaculture and Marine Biology should be commercializedÂ for the development of health, basic need of daily life, create employment, generate income, stronger economy, reducing financial crises, global Poverty and hunger in the developing countries of the world particularly in south Asia.
Title: Effect of Land Use on Soil Phosphorous Sorption Characteristics and Physicochemical Properties of Assosa District, of North Western Ethiopia.
Presently I am working at Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), Assosa Agricultural Research Center as junior researcher. I am working as junior researcher in soil research process and I am a leader of acid soil management case team. I am undertaking different research activities concerning soil and plant nutrients in addition to my previous responsibilities in the research department. From this range of experiences and in performing my responsibilities immediately related to my specialty, I devoted a great deal of energy. The most important thing is that those opportunities of directly experiencing the realities of Ethiopian’s research institute have made me soberly aware of the difficulties that they face and their serious gaps from advanced western technologies. In particular, Ethiopian research institutes lack sufficient research and development input, resulting partly from lack of research funds and partly from the lack of well-trained soil scientists.
This study investigated effect of land use on soil phosphorous sorption characteristics and physicochemical properties of surface soils of cultivated, grazing, homestead, natural forest and eucalyptus plantation lands in the Assosa District of North Western Ethiopia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate P-sorption characteristics and to see effect of different land use types on the P sorption and on soil properties. Composite surface (0-20 cm) soil samples from 15 sites of Assosa district were collected arranged for analysis. Soil P sorption was measured in the laboratory by batch experiment. From each land use type, physic chemical properties of soils were evaluated using different extractants and P sorption isotherms were described by Langmuir and Freindulich equations provided a good fit for Langmuir equation for the equilibrium P concentration. Values of the P sorption maximum of the soils ranged from 97.09 to 243.90 mg kg-1 and the distribution coefficient (Kf) values of soils ranged from 0.04-0.18 mg P Kg-1 based on Freundlich model. Soils of the cultivated land with high clay and exchangeable cation contents had high degree of P sorption than the remaining land use systems. Soils physicochemical properties and their relationships with P-adsorption data were determined by correlation analysis method. The results revealed that the P-sorption data were fitted well with both Langmuir and Freundlich models with R2 values of 0.72 and 0.96 respectively. But the former model was found to better in describing P-sorption data than the later model. Bonding energy constant (K) of Langmuir model and Freundlich constant (b) ranged from 0.107-0.220 L/mg and 0.83-0.95 respectively. Among the various soil properties which correlated with P sorption maxima of significance was PH (R2 = 0.92) and CEC (R2 = 0.78) was significantly correlated. The study illustrated that P sorption isotherm in relation to soil properties can be used as a tool of P management in sustainable crop production. It was concluded that P-sorption models can effectively be used to discriminate soils based on P-fixation ability.
Dr. Abdeen Mustafa Omer (BSc, MSc, PhD) is an Associate Researcher at Energy Research Institute (ERI). He obtained both his PhD degree in the Built Environment and Master of Philosophy degree in Renewable Energy Technologies from the University of Nottingham. He is qualified Mechanical Engineer with a proven track record within the water industry and renewable energy technologies. He has been graduated from University of El Menoufia, Egypt, BSc in Mechanical Engineering. His previous experience involved being a member of the research team at the National Council for Research/Energy Research Institute in Sudan and working director of research and development for National Water Equipment Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Sudan. He has been listed in the book WHO’S WHO in the World 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010. He has published over 300 papers in peer-reviewed journals, 200 review articles, 15 books and 150 chapters in books.
This communication discusses a comprehensive review of biomass energy sources, environment and sustainable development. This includes all the biomass energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce emissions globally. This study highlights the energy problem and their possible saving that can be achieved through the use of biomass energy sources. Also, this study clarifies the background of the study, highlights the potential energy saving that could be achieved. The use of biomass energy source describes the objectives, approach and scope of the theme. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biomass technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated as a whole while especially in remote rural areas.
Keywords: Biomass resources, wastes, woodfuel, biofuels, energy, environment