Most of the natural polymers are formed from the condensation polymers and this formation from the monomers, water is obtained as a by-product. Cellulose, starch, lignin, chitin, and various polysaccharides are included in this group. These materials research and their outgrowth offer a wide range of properties and applications. Natural polymers are liable to be biodegradable, although the rate of degeneration is generally inversely proportional to the extent of chemical modification for Polymeric Materials. In natural polymers most are condensation polymers, and in their formation from monomers water is a by-product.
Polymer Nano composites (PNC) are made of a polymers or copolymers having nanoparticles or Nano fillers dispersed in the polymer matrix. The plastic used for food packaging and non-food applications is non-biodegradable, and also of valuable and scarce non-renewable resources like petroleum. With the current research on exploring the alternatives to petrol and priority on reduced environmental impact, research is increased in development of biodegradable packaging from biopolymer-based materials. A biomaterial is a surface, or construct that interacts with biological systems. These biomaterials are about fifty years old. The study of such materials is called biomaterials science. It has been seen a strong growth over its past period, were many companies have been investing large amounts in the development of new products. Biomaterials science is the elements of medicine, biology, chemistry, tissue engineering and materials science.
A plastic materials is defined as Bioplastics. If it is either biobased, biodegradable or features both properties. In Bioplastics, some uses a microorganism to process base materials, such as oils, starch, cellulose, acids and alcohols. By using microorganisms we can made agricultural by-products and also from used plastic bottles and other containers. . Common plastics, such as fossil-fuel plastics are derived from petroleum or natural gas. . Production of such plastics tends to require more fossil fuels and to produce more greenhouse gases than the production of biobased polymers (bioplastics).Almost all Bioplastics produce less carbon dioxide in production, they are not necessarily completely green. There are so many bioplastics also release carbon dioxide and monoxide when biodegrading .Biodegradable plastics can break down in either anaerobic or aerobic, depends on the manufacturing.
Nano polymers are nothing but nanostructured polymers. The nanoparticles that can be used as building blocks to make a wide variety of material, such as super crystals or ionic liquid. The nanoparticles lack the ability to bond along specific directions -like atoms and molecules do-which means they are not easily joined together to make large structures like filaments or films. Because of nanoparticles are typically coated with a capping layer to prevent further growth or clustering. The nanostructure determines important modifications in the intrinsically properties. Multi scale Nano structuring and the resulting materials properties across the hierarchy of length scales from atomic, to mesoscopic, to macroscopic is an absolute necessity. The term polymer covers a large, vast group of molecules, including substances from proteins to high-strength Kevlar fibers. A key feature that distinguishes polymers from other large molecules is the recurrence of units of atoms in their chains. This occurs during polymerization, in which large number of monomers, polymer chains within a substance are often not of equal length.
Synthetic polymers are lightweight, hard to break, and last a long time. They are quite cheap to make and easy to form into shapes. One of the most common and versatile polymers is polyethylene. It is made from ethylene (also known as ethane) monomers. A synthetic polymer is a man-made macromolecule that is made of thousands of repeating units. Sometimes these polymers are straight-chained, like our paperclip chain example, and consist of one long chain of monomers bonded end to end. Sometimes polymers are both straight-chained and branched. This means that neighboring chains will bond with each other and make vast, net-like structures. This type of bonding between chains is called crosslinking. The technologies involved in the synthesis of the main classes of engineering high polymers used in such materials as plastics, fibers, rubbers, foams, adhesives and coatings. Besides the basic processes, this volume includes information on physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics - key factors with respect to obtaining the right end products. It also focuses on the main application of synthetic polymers in different engineering areas and gives data on production and consumption. Over 60 technological flowcharts are presented in a clear and concise manner, to provide the reader with essential information on relevant operations.
Cellulose is the most generous substance on the earth, synthesized by plants, algae and also some species of bacteria and microorganisms. The Plant derivative cellulose and Black Carbon (BC) have the same chemical composition but differ in structure and physical properties. The BC network structure comprises cellulose Nano fibrils 3-8 nm in diameter, and the crystalline regions are been the normal cellulose I. The properties such as the Nano metric structure, unique physical and mechanical properties together produce higher purity that lead to great number of commercial products. Lignocellulosic agricultural byproducts are an extensive and cheap source for cellulose fibers. Agro-based biofibers have the architecture, properties and design that make them suitable for use as composite, textile, pulp and paper manufacture. In addition, biofibers can be used to produce biofuel, chemicals, enzymes and food.
This session contents a how smaller molecules combined and formed a useful material with specific characteristics by manipulating the molecular structure of the monomers/polymers used. And different polymerization technics. This session represents the Physical Properties and Physical Chemistry of Polymers, Polymerization technics, Polymeric Materials for Special Applications. Thermoplastic materials segment is expected to witness the highest growth over the next ten years. Increasing applications of engineered plastics in various fields, such as construction, automotive, and industrial manufacturing equipment to mechanical engineering is expected to drive this market.
Bio based polymers lead not only on the raw materials side but also on the other side through certain promising end-of-life (EOL) options. Exclusively waste disposal with energy recovery has an added advantage, which lies in benefiting carbon neutral energy while allowing multiple uses of possible recycling. The recent commission after research said that all of the composts contain biodegradable polymers materials could be classified using a risk assessment system at a higher toxicity position. Biodegradable polymers waste can serve for aerobic degradation, composting, or anaerobic digestion.
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An emerging trend is the advancement of monomers from renewable carbon that are identical to those that currently produced from petroleum-derived raw material. Examples include diols (e.g. 1,3-propenediol, 1,4-butanediol), diacids (e.g. succinic and adipic acids), terephthalic acid and acrylic acid (C3H4O2). The attraction to this approach is that ‘drop in’ biobased products have well-established markets such that, if they can be produced at equivalent cost and quality, they will be adopted by producers. Drop in biobased monomers to authorize the yield of biobased drop-in polymers such as PBS (poly butylene succinate), PTT (poly trimethylene terephthalate), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and biobased polyamides.
In search of novel Advanced Materials solutions and keeping an eye on the goal of sustainable production and consumption, Bioplastics have several (potential) benefits. The use of renewable resources to produce bioplastics the key for increasing resource productivity, the resources can be cultivated on an (at least) annual basis, the principle of cascade use, as biomass can primarily be used for materials and then for energy generation, a reduction of the carbon footprint and GHG egressions of some materials and products-saving fossil fuels in many resources, and for substituting them step by step. Biobased polymeric materials are closer to the reality of replacing conventional polymers than ever before. The bioplastics are about fifty year old, at present days, biobased polymers are commonly found in many applications from commodity to hi-tech applications due to advancement in biotechnology and public awareness.