Bio-based materials are expected to have huge market potentials in several industry segments particular as bioplastics or bio-based polymers in the plastic industry. Being the first plastics entering the “world”, today they are still mostly in niche positions. Even today “bioplastics” and “biodegradability” and alike are often different or wrong defined, leading to misinformation what has slowed down the acceptance process. The presentation will give an overview about the actual status and trends of bioplastics and biomaterials in Asia compared to the global development . The presentation will highlight the opportunities but also the challenges bio-based plastics and biopolymer are facing with a special focus on the activities in South-East Asia. For example Thailand has an abundant sources of raw materials and an already well developed infrastructure for plastic products including a National Roadmap since 2008 to support bioplastic introduction in the domestic market. But where is Thailand today? The current status of the bioplastic development in Thailand will be reviewed and the experiences with the involved measures on technology, market and policy aspects be shared with the focus on lessons learned for future outlooks. Understanding driver mechanism and interaction, the importance of policy support from governments, deeper understanding of technology, applications and markets will be the future key for success for bioplastics and related products.
Professor Mitchell carried out his doctoral studies at the University of Cambridge and postdoctoral studies at Hokkiado University Japan, and the University of Cambridge. He is currently Vice-Director of the Centre for Rapid and Sustainable Product Development, Institute Polytechnic of Leiria, Marinha Grande, Portugal a centre of excellence in the field of sustainable manufacturing, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. He is also Emeritus Professor at the University of Reading UK. He has published over 300 papers in international journals and 6 books. He is an editorial board member of several international journals.
Dr. Stephan Kabasci holds a PhD in Chemical engineering from the Technical University of Dortmund. He has been working for Fraunhofer UMSICHT since 1992, starting as a research engineer and project manager. From 1998 – 2003 he was head of the working group "Bioengineering", 2004 – 2013 he was business unit manager "Renewable Resources, and since 2014 he has been head of the department “Bio-based Plastics”. Dr. Kabasci is teaching bioengineering at the Ruhr-University Bochum and he is the editor of “Bio-based Plastics. Materials and Applications” in the Wiley Series on Renewable Resources.
Today, foam extrusion of thermoplastics such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) or polystyrene (PS) is widely used to produce foamed products, e. g. food packaging trays or insulation boards. However, there is an increasing demand in considering sustainability aspects (e. g. low toxicity, renewable resource base) for materials and products. Therefore, considerable research has been conducted on foaming bio-based plastics recently. The contribution gives an overview of the developments at Fraunhofer UMSICHT in the field of biopolymer foams. Recent results of foaming of different biopolymers, namely starch, cellulose esters, bio-based polyesters and a bio-based polycarbonate, will be presented. The research covered chemical as well as physical blowing agents. Morphology was analyzed by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Physical foam properties such as foam density and porosity as well as mechanical foam properties were also measured. Depending on the biopolymer type and the blowing agent type and content, different foam properties and foam morphologies can be achieved. Finally, an outlook on future research projects of Fraunhofer UMSICHT in the field of biopolymers foaming will be given.
Dr. Yash Khanna has been in the Plastics Industry for over 40 years with affiliations at Honeywell, Rayonier, Imerys, and Applied Minerals; majority of his career being at the Corporate R&D of Honeywell, formerly AlliedSignal in Morristown, NJ. While at Honeywell, Yash gained a diversified experience ranging from Fundamental Research to Product Development to Technology Marketing in North America & Europe. Currently, he is the Chief Technology Officer at KHG fiteBac Technology responsible for launching its Antimicrobial products in the Polymers & Plastics materials for healthcare applications.
Dr. Khanna’s career is credited with over 120 research publications, 25 US Patents and numerous technology & business awards. Yash received his PhD / MS degrees in Polymer Science & Engineering at the Polytechnic Institute of New York University, New York.
While most major corporations around the world have escalated their efforts in recent years on improving the Environmental Impact & Sustainability via several routes, some BREAK-THROUGH concepts have only lately emerged. For example, (1) CONVERTING land & forest WASTES into chemicals; the latter besides numerous uses serve as Building-Blocks for plastics and (2) REDUCING-CAPTURING-CONVERTING the harmful greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) into chemicals. These revolutionary concepts are expected to take environment/sustainability efforts to new heights.
This presentation will begin with a review of the historic emergence of the biobased plastics industry starting with an era of “Waste Management via Biodegradation” followed by a period of very high petroleum prices and proliferation of technology pipeline to develop traditional & new DURABLE polymers, and now again through times of lower petroleum pricing / shale gas revolution. In spite of turbulent events, reasons for steady-growth of this industry forecasted to be 34Blbs/year by 2020, will be highlighted. Emphasis of the presentation will be on how the field of Polymers & Chemicals is being rejuvenated via Non-Fossil Raw-Materials that are (1) Biobased-Sustainable or (2) Air-Land-Ocean Pollutants”; thereby leading to preservation of petroleum resources, reduction of air-land-ocean pollution, and utilization of free/undesirable raw materials.
- Natural polymer | Biopolymers as materials | Bioplastics | Nano polymers | Synthetic Polymers | Biopolymers in Biofibres & Microbial Cellulose
Andrés Felipe Ramos is a chemical engineer from Los Andes University in Bogotá, Colombia and is finishing his MSc in Chemical Engineering in the National University of Colombia. Is member of the Bioprocess and Bioprospecting research group of the national university since January of 2017, the research group has several publications about P3HB production process published in international scientific journals.
Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) or (P3HB) is a thermoplastic polyester of the family of the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) produced by different kinds of microorganisms under stress conditions. It has very interesting mechanical and physicochemical characteristics that allow it to be used for packaging applications. However, it’s necessary to improve some of its weakest characteristics like the high brittleness, the production cost and the narrow processing window. This improvements can be achieved using different extraction, purification and modification technics that result in materials with different physicochemical characteristics and production costs. In this work different extraction, purification and modification processes were evaluated in order to obtain a polymer with the properties required to make it competitive in the industry. Fatty acids were used as carbon source and the fermentations were made in 5L, 20L and 100L bioreactors. Initially, the polymer must be extracted and separated from the surrounding PHA hyper-productive mutant bacteria Burkholderia cepacia B27 biomass, using techniques like chemical digestion with SDS and NaOH, centrifugation and solvent precipitation. Then the polymer was purified to remove protein and oil residues from the fermentation, for this the performance of different solvents such as acetic acid, acetone, ethanol and methanol was tested under different operation conditions. Finally, the polymer was modified blending it with other biodegradable polymers like polyethilenglycol and adding different organic fillers to evaluate improvements in the mechanical characteristics. The samples where characterized by TGA and DSC essays and different mechanical tests. The results indicate that the use of organic polar solvents such as methanol and ethanol allow to obtain a colorless, odorless and high purity polymer. Also, use this or other solvents as acetic acid and acetone avoid the use of chloroform in the process, which is an expensive and hazardous solvent that can’t be used at the industrial production level.
The scientific interests of Claire Monge are natural drug delivery systems. She obtained her PhD from the Grenoble Alpes University (France) in Physiology and Pharmacology and has integrated the French National Center of Research (CNRS) in 2017 as a permanent researcher in the Laboratory of Tissue Biology and Therapeutical Engineering (LBTI). She develops a research topic around the LbL technology applied to protein and nanoparticule delivery at mucosal sites (http://lbti.ibcp.fr/?page_id=2014).
The performance of polymeric structures as drug delivery systems and implantable devices is fully dependent on their stability and integrity in biological environments.
The Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technology is a versatile technique that can be used to fabricate numerous structures such as planar ultrathin films and membranes, without using aggressive solvents.
LbL relies on the use of polyelectrolytes with an opposite charge assembled onto very thin (few nm) or large (several tens of µm) structures [1, 2]. The nature of polymer interactions makes the assembly a versatile platform to load and release macromolecules .
The deposition of hundred layers of biopolymers (polysaccharides) on a low energy substrate (polypropylene) led to the production of a thick free-standing membrane with tunable thickness (tens of µm) and mechanical properties. For example, these membranes were able to drive bone generation in vivo after loading with the osteogenic factor BMP-2 .
LbL free-standing membranes could be produced with various biopolymers (hyaluronic acid, collagen…) and deliver biomacromolecules such as proteins or nucleic acids or even nanoobjects for skin or mucosal applications.
Dr. Davis L. Ford is an Adjunct Professor in the College of Engineering, the University of Texas at Austin, and a Visiting Professor of Petroleum Engineering at Texas Tech University, Lubbock. He is practicing environmental engineer with over forty-five years of experience in the field. In addition, he serves on the faculty at The University of Texas at Austin as an adjunct professor, has published more than one hundred technical papers, has co-authored or contributed to ten textbooks, and written two biographies and co-authored one children’s book. He has lectured extensively throughout the United States and in countries of Europe, South America, and Asia. Ford received his bachelor’s degree in civil engineering at Texas A&M University and his master and doctorate degrees in environmental engineering at The University of Texas at Austin. He is a Distinguished Engineering Graduate of both Texas A&M University and The University of Texas at Austin as well as a Distinguished Alumnus of Texas A&M. Ford was elected into the prestigious National Academy of Engineering (NAE). He has served as president of the American Academy of Environmental Engineers and chairman of the Academy Ethics Committee. His honorary affiliations include Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Xi, and Chi Epsilon. Ford serves on the Board of a publicly-owned oil and exploration company (CWEI, NASDAQ) and the Board of the Texas A&M University Press.
The major producers of oil and gas extraction currently are the United States followed by Russia and Saudi Arabia. With the price of Brent Crude in the range of $70 dollars per barrel, other proven reserves in the world plan to develop production, such as Chile, Argentina, China, Canada, Mexico, and Norway offshore. Moreover, countries with a sound GDP will be importing oil and gas as the most cost effective way, namely from cost competition in the International Market. I will discuss areas of proven crude which will be competitively priced FOB to energy deficit countries, with the free market pricing. This presentation will also include updates on extraction of tight oil and gas being environmentally sound and protecting domestic water supplies.
Case histories of the extensive evolution of oil and gas production in the United States will address the following technical and environmental issues: Case histories which address hydraulic fracking below potable water supplies, proper casing, and now both vertical and horizontal drilling. Moreover, cost subsidies and economic pricing of oil and gas extraction, hydro power, coal, nuclear, wind, and solar. There are no “dry holes” which are attributable to highly advanced geological technology. Safety and economic payback will also be discussed in this presentation.
Presentation will include drilling diagrams, natural gas treatment, delivery from source to energy deficient countries exported as LNG, and risk and cost analysis.
Vakhtang Barbakadze has his expertise in isolation and structure elucidation of a new series of plant polyethers, which are endowed with pharmacological properties as anti-cancer agents. Besides, he interested in enantioselective synthesis and biological activities of basic monomeric moiety of these biopolyethers, synthesis of enantiomerically pure epoxides as chiral building blocks for the production of synthetic analogues of natural polyethers. He has completed his Ph.D and D.Sci. in 1978 and 1999 from Institute of Organic Chemistry, Moscow, Russia and Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Tbilisi, Georgia, respectively. He is the head of Department of plant biopolymers and chemical modification of natural compounds at the Tbilisi State Medical University Institute of Pharmacochemistry. 1996 and 2002 he has been a visiting scientist at Utrecht University, The Netherlands, by University Scholarship and The Netherlands organization for scientific research (NWO) Scholarship Scientific Program, respectively. He has published more than 92 papers in reputed journals.
Within the field of pharmacologically active biopolymers the area of stable polyethers seems rather new and attractive. The high-molecular fractions (>1000 kDa) from the several species of two genera Symphytum and Anchusa (Boraginaceae) family were isolated by ultrafiltration. According to 13C and 1H NMR, 1D NOE, 2D heteronuclear 1H/13C HSQC and 2D DOSY esperiments the main structural element of these high-molecular fractions was found to be a new regular polymeric molecule. The polyoxyethylene chain is the backbone of this biopolymer. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl and carboxyl groups are regular substituents at two carbon atoms in the chain. The repeating unit of this regular caffeic acid-derived polyether, is 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)glyceric acid residue. Thus, the structure of natural polymer under study was found to be poly[oxy-1-carboxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylene] or poly[3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)glyceric acid] (PDPGA). This compound represents a new class of natural polyethers. Then the racemic monomer 2,3-dihydroxy-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (DDPPA) and its enantiomers (+)-(2R,3S)-DDPPA and (-)-(2S,3R)-DDPPA were synthesized via Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation of trans-caffeic acid derivatives using a potassium osmiate catalyst and enantiocomplementary catalysts cinchona alkaloid derivatives (DHQ)2-PHAL and (DHQD)2-PHA as chiral auxiliaries. Besides, methylated PDPGA was obtained via ring opening polymerization of 2-methoxycarbonyl-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)oxirane using a cationic initiator. PDPGA is endowed with intriguing pharmacological activities as anticomplementary, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, burn and wound healing and anticancer properties. PDPGA and its synthetic monomer exerted anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo against androgen-dependent and -independent human prostate cancer (PCA) cells via targeting androgen receptor, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis without any toxicity, together with a strong decrease in prostate specific antigen level in plasma. However anticancer efficacy of PDPGA against human PCA cells is more compared to its synthetic monomer. Methylated PDPGA did not show any activity against PCA. Overall, this study identifies PDPGA as a potent agent against PCA without any toxicity, and supports its clinical application.
PhD Scholar, doing PhD in Pharmaceutics and working on the project of extraction and modification of natural polymers and their use in development of drug delivery system. I have expertise in development and evaluation of different types of dosage forms including tablets (orodispersable, sustained release matrix tablets, gastro retentive drug delivery, mucoadhesive tablets), capsules, gels, microspheres, microsponges, nanoparticles, transdermal patches and buccal films (immediate release and sustained release mucoadhesive buccal films). Moreover, has expertise in extraction and modification of polymers and their use as the carriers for delivery of various drugs. Also has expertise in development and validation of HPLC methods for identification and quantification of drugs alone as well as for simultaneous determination.
The purpose of the study was to develop Tizanidine HCl (TZN) and Meloxicam (MLX) loaded bilayer mucoadhesive films intended for buccal administration, aiming to enhance the bioavailability. Bilayer films were prepared by solvent evaporation technique selecting arabinoxylan (ARX) as a sustained release (SR) layer forming polymer and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) E-15 as an immediate release (IR) layer forming polymer. Prepared films were subjected to in-vitro drug release, surface morphology, mechanical strength, compatibility of the ingredients, drug contents, ex-vivo mucoadhesion strength and drug permeation. Crossover study design was applied to study the in-vivo pharmacokinetics by using albino rabbits. Various pharmacokinetic parameters including AUC, Cmax, Tmax and T1/2 of both drugs loaded in films were compared with standard solution/dispersion. The results unveiled instant release and permeation of MLX from IR layer, while good controlled release and permeation characteristics of TZN from SR films over 8 h. films were of uniform thickness with smooth surface and satisfactory mechanical strength. Mucoadhesion strength was sufficient to provide suitable contact time with mucosal membrane. The pharmacokinetic study exhibited prompt absorption of MLX with better AUC 0-t (6655.64 vs 6538.99) and Cmax (436.98 vs 411.33) from oral dispersion. Similarly buccal films has shown enhanced half-life (9.91hr vs 2.51 hr), AUC 0-t (1043.4 vs 149.1) and Cmax (91.92 ng/ml vs 42.29 ng/ml) from oral solution. A statistical investigation disclosed a significantly improved pharmacokinetics of TZN and MLX after their absorption across buccal route following administration of F-ARX (p<0.05). ARX proved expedient and bilayer buccal films as a drug delivery system ascertained the dual effect of providing instant release of one active agent and persistent release of another one with improved pharmacokinetics
I am a faculty member of the Islamic Azad University of Tehran. I have a solid state physics degree. The field of my work and scientific activity is the nanoscale materials and physical properties of materials. At present, I have students who work with them in the subject of corrosion and physical properties of materials.Dr. Amir Houshang Ramezani, Head of Young Researchers and Elite Students Club.
The surface bombardment with inert gases mainly produces structural changes, modifying topography and morphology that atomic force microscopy analysis reveals significant changes on the surface. In this paper the effect of nitrogen and argon ion implantation on surface structure and resistance against tantalum corrosion is investigated. These experiment nitrogen ions with the energy of 30 keV and doses of 3 × 10 17 ions/cm2 are used. Roughness variations before and after implantation are observed by Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Also the corrosion analysis apparatus is used for comparison of resistance against Tantalum corrosion before and after ion implantation. Results show that nitrogen ion implantation has a substantial effect on resistance improvement against tantalum corrosion. The aim of this article is to achieve the best condition of tantalum formation. The corrosion potential curves and roughness values obviously indicate that corrosion potential variations caused to the different doses of Nitrogen ion bombardment are inversely proportional to surface roughness.After the corrosion test, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyzed the samples’ surface morphologies. In addition, the elemental composition is characterized by energy –dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis.
Fuyou Ke obtained the PHD at Peking University (China) in 2010. In 2012, he worked with Dr. Xiangyun Qiu at the George-Washington University (USA) as a postdoctoral researcher for one year. Now he is working at Donghua University (China) as an assistant professor. His research focuses on DNA and its hybrids with single-walled carbon nanotubes. He has published more than 30 papers in international peer-reviewed journals.
Single-stranded DNAs with specific sequence not only effectively disperse single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), but also enable chiral separation of SWCNT, but their sorting mechanism has not been clarified yet. Here, we chose SWCNT (6,5) and single-stranded DNA (GT)20 as an example, DNA-SWCNT hybrids were prepared and their structures were characterized. Quantitative measurements of intermolecular forces in DNA-SWCNT hybrids were conducted at different salt concentrations by using osmotic method in combination with X-ray diffraction. Data analysis showed that the intermolecular forces of DNA-SWCNT hybrids could be well described by using long-range electrostatic repulsion and short-range hydration repulsion at low salt concentrations; while at high salt concentrations, non-electrostatic attractions were observed, which we think were attributed to the hydrophobic interactions of exposed SWCNT surface. This study not only helps us understand DNA conformation on SWCNT surface as well as their sorting mechanism of SWCNT, but also has great significance in the assembly of SWCNT-based functional materials.
Chunwang Yi, senior engineer and professor service for both university and industrial companies, has his expertise in improving the synthesis route of bio-based and functional polyamide polymer. He creates a successful green path in preparing functional copolymers based on PA6, bio-based polyether and so on. He has both in built this reputation after years of experience in research, teaching and service both in engineering company and education institutions.
Cured modified epoxy resins, as a typical thermoset resin, is widely applied in adhesives, electronic packaging, protective coatings, composites matrix for its outstanding performance in mechanical strength, insulation ability and corrosion resistance. However, epoxy resins prone to brittle facture at low temperature, which restricts it application in some special areas, like aerospace and automotive fields. In recent years, bio-based polyether was widely used to improve the toughness of epoxy resins. Howbeit, investigations revealed that when using long-chain polyether as modifier, though it has been proved to own outstanding toughness, while at the same time, it showed deficiencies in the impact strength and Young’s modulus. In order to solve this problem, a new bio-based adipic acid-polyoxypropylene diamine copolymer with molecular weight of 2000 (AA-PPA 2000) has been synthesized by extending polyoxypropylene diamine D400 with adipic acid. The new bio-based polymer was used to modify diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy/diethyl toluene diamine (DDM) system, and the polyoxypropylene diamine D2000 was taken as the reference. The results of low-field 1H-NMR, DMA and mechanical properties test revealed that at the same condition of adding content, PPA2000 was superior to D2000 in modifying epoxy resins and maintained better overall performance. Amazingly, the results also disclosed that by using PPA2000 as toughener, intermolecular hydrogen bonds had been formed between amide groups of PPA2000 and hydroxyl groups of epoxy resins, which led to more complicated networks taken shape in the epoxy composites and thus introduced distinct advantages to the composites at achieving the synchronous enhancement of strength and fracture toughness.
Karin Larsson is a Professor in Inorganic Chemistry at the Department of Materials Chemistry, Uppsala University, Sweden. She received a PhD in Chemistry (especially Inorganic Chemistry) in 1988 at the Department of Chemistry, Uppsala University. The research was directed towards investigation of molecular dynamic processes in solid hydrates by using solid state NMR spectroscopy. The Post-Doctoral period 1989-1990 was devoted to diamond growth using different CVD setups. Since autumn, 1991, and onwards Prof. Larsson continued to theoretically investigate surface processes during. Prof. Karin Larsson is today the leader of the Theoretical Materials Chemistry Group at the Department of Chemistry. The scientific focus is on interpretation, understanding and prediction of the following processes/properties for both solid/gas interfaces, as well as for solid/liquid interfaces; i) CVD growth, iii) interfacial processes for renewable energy applications , and iv) interfacial processes for e.g. bone regeneration (incl. biofunctionalisation of surfaces).
Avascular necrosis is a disease of cell death in joints, jaw, and hips due to lack of blood supply induced by burnt, inflammation or trauma, etc. The mainstream curing these days are i) arterial infusion by partial drug delivery, and ii) the replacement of the whole joints by using artificial materials. The first method can only be applied at an early stage of the disease, and the curing results. So for more severe situations, the medical implants will become the only choice. With the need for an improved stability and biocompatibility of the medical implant materials, diamond has recently become interesting as a promising material. The combination of chemical inertness and biocompatibility makes diamond a good material for e.g. biological applications.
In order to promote localized cell adhesion and vascularization onto the diamond-covered medical implants, the prerequisite for pre-adhesion of growth factors onto the diamond surfaces is of largest interest to study more in detail. It is highly necessary that these investigations are performed on an atomic level. Therefore, theoretical simulations is a necessary complementary tool to i) aid in the analysis of experimental observations, and ii) to make recommendations for corresponding experimental studies.
With the purpose to tailor-make the medical implant surface by utilizing diamond’s unique properties, the present study has investigated the interaction between diamond and various biomolecules (BMP2, RGD, heparin, fibronectin, VEGF, angiopoietin). The combined effect of various surface plane and termination type (H, O, OH, and NH2) has been of a special interest to study. Three different groupings where obtained with regard to adhesion strength. And all of these three groups showed different dependencies of the surface termination type. For all of these different scenarios, strong bond formations were observed. Evaluation of the methods used showed that the calculated trends in adhesion energy are highly reliable.
Abdeen Mustafa Omer (BSc, MSc, PhD) is an Associate Researcher at Energy Research Institute (ERI). He obtained both his PhD degree in the Built Environment and Master of Philosophy degree in Renewable Energy Technologies from the University of Nottingham. He is qualified Mechanical Engineer with a proven track record within the water industry and renewable energy technologies. He has been graduated from University of El Menoufia, Egypt, BSc in Mechanical Engineering. His previous experience involved being a member of the research team at the National Council for Research/Energy Research Institute in Sudan and working director of research and development for National Water Equipment Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Sudan. He has been listed in the book WHO’S WHO in the World 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010. He has published over 300 papers in peer-reviewed journals, 100 review articles, 5 books and 100 chapters in books.
The demand for energy continued to outstrip supply and necessitated the development of biomass option. Residues were the most popular forms of renewable energy and currently biofuel production became much promising. Agricultural wastes contained high moisture content and could be decomposed easily by microbes. Agricultural wastes were abundantly available globally and could be converted to energy and useful chemicals by a number of microorganisms. Compost or bio-fertiliser could be produced with the inoculation of appropriated thermophilic microbes which increased the decomposition rate, shortened the maturity period and improved the compost (or bio-fertiliser) quality. The objective of the present research was to promote the biomass technology and involved adaptive research, demonstration and dissemination of results. With a view to fulfill the objective, a massive field survey was conducted to assess the availability of raw materials as well as the present situation of biomass technologies. In the present communication, an attempt had also been made to present an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. We may conclude from the review paper that biomass technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, not only in urban areas but also in remote rural areas.