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One technology relies on steady, repetitive motion to build each infinitesimal layer, over and over again. The other technology is renowned for its repeatability and control. It's a match made in disruptive technology, in the future of manufacturing Robots are not only enabling additive manufacturing, they're tending 3D machines which are also robotic, automation and allowing them These technologies are used to develop machines that can substitute for humans and replicate human actions.3DRobots can be used in many situations and for lots of purposes where humans cannot survive Robots can take on any form but some are made to resemble humans in appearance in the acceptance of a 3D robot the approach of minimally invasive techniques in robotics, for the advent intervention

 

In the electronics industry, a widely recognized concern among designers and engineers is the design, testing and integration of multilayer PCB prototypes in an electronics product. The more intricate the design,3D printing a PCB makes manufacturing a complex multilayer PCB much easier by cutting out several steps. Normal PCB manufacturing technology requires blind and open to be drilled and plated the 3D-printing process simply prints them. is focused on the research and development of advanced 3D printed electronics, including a 3D printer for multilayer printed circuit boards (PCB's), and the development of nanotechnology-based conductive and dielectric inks, which are complementary products for 3D printer. 3D inkjet multilayer PCB printing offers the kind of flexibility and responsiveness required in today’s competitive world and eliminates many of the drawbacks associated with outside PCB printing facilities. It lets the designer rapidly build functional prototypes in-house, thus helping to identify product defects in the initial stages of design. PCBS with interconnections and through-holes in hours – including even the most complex Prototypes.

The 3D printing ceramics market is estimated to be valued at USD 27.8 Million in 2015 and is projected to reach USD 131.5 Million by 2021, at a CAGR of 29.6% from 2016 to 2021. Rapid increase in demand from end-user industries for different applications is expected to drive the overall demand for 3D printing ceramics market in coming years. The base year used for study is 2015 and the forecast period is 2016 to 2021. 3D printing ceramic market segmentation on the basis of different end-use industries, such as aerospace & defence, healthcare, automotive, consumer goods & electronics, manufacturing & construction, and others.

 

The fabrication, characterization, and evaluation of three-dimensional hydrogel thin films used to measure Protein binding (antigenicity) and antibody functionality in a microarray format. Protein antigenicity was evaluated using the protein toxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin as a model.it is highly crosslinked hydrogel thin films of polyacrylamide and on two-dimensional glass surfaces antibody binding to immobilized unlabelled SEB. Antibody functionality experiments were conducted using three chemically modified surfaces (highly crosslinked polyacrylamide hydrogels, commercially available hydrogels and 2D glass surfaces). Cy3-labeled anti-mouse IgG (capture antibody) was microarrayed onto the hydrogel surfaces and interrogated with the corresponding Cy5-labeled microarrayed surface and the fluorescence quantified by fluorescence intensities for the 3D films compared to analogous 2D surfaces with attomole level and sensitivity measured in direct capture immunosays

Biodegradability, pore interconnectivity, pore size, porosity, and mechanical properties. Biocompatibility and biodegradability are important properties for scaffold materials to possess, ensuring they are degraded into nontoxic products while leaving behind only the desirable living tissue. In addition, the material should have minimized inflammatory responses, thereby avoiding reducing the likelihood of rejection by the host's immune system. It would also be beneficial if scaffold materials could behave as substrates for cellular attachment, proliferation and differentiation. For 3D printing systems utilizing powder beds, grain size and grain size distributions must be taken into account to produce porous scaffolds as these factors have a direct influence on micro porosity which has been seen to influence cell distribution, attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To achieve bio mimicry of the ECM, scaffolds need to be biologically active. 

3D modelling is the process of developing a mathematical representation of any surface of an object either inanimate or living in three dimensions via specialized software. The product is called a 3D model. It is displayed as a two-dimensional image through a process called 3D rendering or used in a computer simulation of physical phenomena. This model can be physically created using 3D printing devices. Models may be created automatically or manually all 3D printing processes build parts layer-by-layer. The material cannot be deposited onto thin air, so every layer must be printed over some underline material areas of a model that are either partially supported by the layer below or not supported at all. The limit on the angle every 3D Printer can produce without the need of Support Material. It is often easily overlooked while designing a 3D model is the fact that the materials used for 3D printing undertake physical change they are melted Sintered or scanned with a laser and solidified.

 

Tissue Engineering aims to collect functional tissue body applications with which it regenerates the medicine and drug testing.  Recently, in the 3D printing it has shown a great promise in tissue fiction with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Through the scaffold-based or scaffold-free approach, the standard 3D printed tissue engineering build and it provide a biomimetic structural environment those facilitates tissue creation and advertise the host of tissue assimilation

3D printed models are useful for transferring information to the surgeon in a more informative way and allow for improved, more detailed surgical planning. They can help to reveal intervention procedures to novice surgeons and patients through the use of printing materials able to resemble the mechanical properties of bone. The evolution in orthodontic surgery has allowed for advanced surgical planning, precision robotic machining of bone, improved implant bone contact, optimization of implant placement, and optimization of the mechanical alignment.3Dprinting enables users to create specific shapes and sizes to achieve a highly customizable prosthetic. 3D printing technology also allows for more versatile prosthetics that can be designed Prosthetics have successfully been used for mandibles, dental restoration, hip, femoral and hemi-knee joint reconstruction and continue to grow as a viable and preferred option for prosthetics.

 

3D printing for automotive parts can be a game changer in the industry. They projects that “the global automotive industry is set to reach 114 million in worldwide sales annually by 2024”. This market can has very high barriers with the entry and it is dominated by just a few design in the automotive industry allows and in which designers try multiple options of the same detail and iterations by during the stages of new model development It brings more flexibility of 3D printing software, and particularly the 3D printing workflow of the management software is an efficient tool to produce complex 3D components for the automotive industry.

 

 

3D printing permits fashion designers to expand beyond the traditional boundaries of design, allowing them to turn some of the most challenging design concepts into reality. We are seeing an evolution from traditional textile production methods, such as pattern-cutting and sewing textiles together, towards a textile being totally three dimensionally and which can be grown in which we can create Digitally for 3D materials are offering up vast possibilities in the terms of enabling sophisticated physical properties to be embedded in specifically defined technologies

 

 

3D printing and still continues to contribute heavily to its development 3D printer works normally in space.3D printer extrudes streams of heated plastic, metal or other material, building layer on top of layer to create 3 dimensional objects. Testing a 3D printer using relatively low-temperature plastic it is a critical enabling component for deep-space crewed missions and in-space manufacturing. 3D Printing offers a fast and inexpensive way to manufacture parts on-site and on-demand. After testing of hardware for 3D printing on parabolic flights from Earth resulted in parts similar to those made on the ground, the next step was testing aboard the space station. The aerospace industry includes a range of commercial, industrial and military applications, and is comprised of departments that design, manufacture, operate and maintain the aircraft or spacecraft the aerospace 3D printing market is projected to grow from USD 714.5 Million in 2017 to USD 3,057.9 Million by 2022, at a CAGR of 27.42% during the forecast period, 2017 to 2022. 

 

 

3D printing and 4D Printing is based on technology It uses special materials and sophisticated designs that are “programmed” to prompt your 3D print to change its shape. So, basically,4D is a renovation of 3D Printing where in special materials to print objects that change shape post-production. It can be driven by a growing need for customization by the printing technologies is dynamically they changing to meet the demands of a global market. Here, the conceptualization of 4D printing on manufacturing scales and processes to 3D printing technology, the 4D printing technology adds the fourth dimension of time. 4D printing allows a printed structure to change its form or function with time in response to stimuli such as pressure, temperature, wind, water, and light. Recently, rapid advances in printing processes and materials development for 3D printing have allowed the printing of smart materials or multi materials designed to change function or shape

 

Methods 3D is taking the 3D process to the next level via full integration with conventional machining solutions. Methods 3D offers the most accurate, dense direct metal printing solutions for materials including ceramics and common metal alloys 3D technical applications engineers, fully integrated with and leveraging the extensive machining and manufacturing expertise of Methods Machine Tools. Methods 3D will analyse customer applications, engineer complete solutions, and install, manage and maintain 3D Printing equipment

The materials are used in 3D Printing is ABS, ASA, PET, PC, Flexible Materials, Soluble Materials, Stereolithography, SLA, SLS, Polyamides, Alumide.

In which some of the Materials used in 3D Printing can find the Applications are:

ABS: ABS filament is the most used in the bodywork of cars, appliances, and mobile phone cases which used in Stereolithography and Polyjet processes

ASA: ASA is a material that has similar properties to ABS but has a greater resistance to UV rays.

PET: Polyethylene terephthalate, or PET, PET is the ideal filament for any pieces intended for contact with food

SLS: Before printing, the object is designed from CAD 3D software which is then sent to the printer as an STL File. 

 

 

Printing approach is used to merge, gain factors, and biomaterials to assemble the biomedical parts the promise of printing human organs invented and began in 1983 by Charles Hull. Now in 3D Bio that maximally emulate natural tissue characteristics. The 3D Printer can be used to print tissues and organs to help in the research of drugs and pills 3DBio printing is the application of printing like techniques to be merged and gain factors, biomaterials to invent biomedical parts. Presently, the innovations are from bio printing of cells or extracellular matrix it has been deposited into a gel layer by layer to produce a desired tissue or organ.