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Computational design is used in computers and algorithms in order to achieve the digital creation of geometries through a mathematical approach. It is a design tool that enables its user to manage and coordinate many parameters at the same time, while keeping some specific constraints stable.it is a technology that got introduced in the engineering, design and architecture fields, it gains recently more and more importance. Computational design is an excellent way to approach problems that require high-levels of complexity both from design and engineering perspectives both from engineering and aesthetical points of view. The 3D printing, complexity is not an issue, as everything to build layer-by-layer, even the most impossible designs. The Computational Design can create complex 3D models in the digital world.

In the electronics industry, a widely recognized concern among designers and engineers is the design, testing and integration of multilayer PCB prototypes in an electronics product. The more intricate the design,3D printing a PCB makes manufacturing a complex multilayer PCB much easier by cutting out several steps. Normal PCB manufacturing technology requires blind and open to be drilled and plated the 3D-printing process simply prints them. is focused on the research and development of advanced 3D printed electronics, including a 3D printer for multilayer printed circuit boards (PCB's), and the development of nanotechnology-based conductive and dielectric inks, which are complementary products for 3D printer. 3D inkjet multilayer PCB printing offers the kind of flexibility and responsiveness required in today’s competitive world and eliminates many of the drawbacks associated with outside PCB printing facilities. It lets the designer rapidly build functional prototypes in-house, thus helping to identify product defects in the initial stages of design. PCBS with interconnections and through-holes in hours – including even the most complex Prototypes.

The fabrication, characterization, and evaluation of three-dimensional hydrogel thin films used to measure Protein binding (antigenicity) and antibody functionality in a microarray format. Protein antigenicity was evaluated using the protein toxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin as a model.it is highly crosslinked hydrogel thin films of polyacrylamide and on two-dimensional glass surfaces antibody binding to immobilized unlabelled SEB. Antibody functionality experiments were conducted using three chemically modified surfaces (highly crosslinked polyacrylamide hydrogels, commercially available hydrogels and 2D glass surfaces). Cy3-labeled anti-mouse IgG (capture antibody) was microarrayed onto the hydrogel surfaces and interrogated with the corresponding Cy5-labeled microarrayed surface and the fluorescence quantified by fluorescence intensities for the 3D films compared to analogous 2D surfaces with attomole level and sensitivity measured in direct capture immunosays

3D modelling (or three-dimensional modelling) is the process of developing a mathematical representation of any surface of an object (either inanimate or living) in three dimensions via specialized software. The product is called a 3D model. Someone who works with 3D models may be referred to as a 3D artist. It can be displayed as a two-dimensional image through a process called 3D rendering or used in a computer simulation of physical phenomena. The model can also be physically created using 3D printing devices. Models may be created automatically or manually. The manual modelling process of preparing geometric data for 3D computer graphics is similar to plastic arts such as sculpting. 3D models are widely used anywhere in 3D graphics and CAD. Their use predates the widespread use of 3D graphics on personal computers. Many computer games used pre-rendered images of 3D models as sprites before computers could render them in real-time. The designer can then see the model in various directions and views; this can help the designer see if the object is created as intended to compare to their original vision.

Biodegradability, pore interconnectivity, pore size, porosity, and mechanical properties. Biocompatibility and biodegradability are important properties for scaffold materials to possess, ensuring they are degraded into nontoxic products while leaving behind only the desirable living tissue. In addition, the material should have minimized inflammatory responses, thereby avoiding reducing the likelihood of rejection by the host's immune system. It would also be beneficial if scaffold materials could behave as substrates for cellular attachment, proliferation and differentiation. For 3D printing systems utilizing powder beds, grain size and grain size distributions must be taken into account to produce porous scaffolds as these factors have a direct influence on micro porosity which has been seen to influence cell distribution, attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To achieve bio mimicry of the ECM, scaffolds need to be biologically active. 

Tissue Engineering aims to collect functional tissue body applications with which it regenerates the medicine and drug testing.  Recently, in the 3D printing it has shown a great promise in tissue fiction with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Through the scaffold-based or scaffold-free approach, the standard 3D printed tissue engineering build and it provide a biomimetic structural environment those facilitates tissue creation and advertise the host of tissue assimilation

Medical applications for 3D printing are expanding rapidly in which the gradually revolutionizing in the delivery of health care. 3D printing is emerging as an efficient and cost-effective manufacturing option for customized medical devices such as dental implants, hearing aids, knee implants, surgical instruments, prosthesis and many more. It enables precision planning for surgeries, optimizing device design and development, increasing productivity, reducing cost, and ultimately revolutionizing the standard of care. The prosthetics and implants industry has made use of 3D technology to create customized products such as dental, spinal and hip implants. 3D-printable models in biomedical science. It launches with, interest has been high – the research community platform claims to have more than 2,000 registered users and offer the access to 5,000 3D models. 

3D printer works normally in space.3D printer extrudes streams of heated plastic, metal or other material, building layer on top of layer to create 3 dimensional objects. Testing a 3D printer using relatively low-temperature plastic it is a critical enabling component for deep-space crewed missions and in-space manufacturing. 3D Printing offers a fast and inexpensive way to manufacture parts on-site and on-demand. After testing of hardware for 3D printing on parabolic flights from Earth resulted in parts similar to those made on the ground, the next step was testing aboard the space station3D printing is very useful for aerospace applications on many aspects.it could become a major aspect for space travels in the future. On Earth, research is already evolving quite fast. Step by step 3D printed parts are sent to space, but some technologies, able to 3D print directly in the microgravity or in the vacuum of space are also developed, it requires new technologies and resistant materials We’ll see the different and new challenges of 3D printing in space regarding the conditions, of the machines and the materials. 

All 3D printing processes build parts layer-by-layer. The material cannot be deposited onto thin air, so every layer must be printed over some underline material areas of a model that are either partially supported by the layer below or not supported at all. The limit on the angle every 3D Printer can produce without the need of Support Material. It is often easily overlooked while designing a 3D model is the fact that the materials used for 3D printing undertake physical change they are melted, sintered or scanned with a laser and solidified.

The materials are used in 3D Printing is ABS, ASA, PET, PC, Flexible Materials, Soluble Materials, Stereolithography, SLA, SLS, Polyamides, Alumide.

In which some of the Materials used in 3D Printing can find the Applications are:

ABS: ABS filament is the most used in the bodywork of cars, appliances, and mobile phone cases Which used in Stereolithography andPolyjet processes

ASA: ASA is a material that has similar properties to ABS but has a greater resistance to UV rays.

PET: Polyethylene terephthalate, or PET, PET is the ideal filament for any pieces intended for contact with food

SLS: Before printing, the object is designed from a CAD 3D software which is then sent to the printer as an STL File. 

Printing approach is used to merge, gain factors, and biomaterials to assemble the biomedical parts the promise of printing human organs invented and began in 1983 by Charles Hull. Now in 3D Bio that maximally emulate natural tissue characteristics. The 3D Printer can be used to print tissues and organs to help in the research of drugs and pills 3DBio printing is the application of printing like techniques to be merged and gain factors, biomaterials to invent biomedical parts. Presently, the innovations are from bio printing of cells or extracellular matrix it has been deposited into a gel layer by layer to produce a desired tissue or organ.

One reason metal 3D printing has become such a hot topic is that parts can be serially 3D printed for mass production. In fact, some parts created with metal 3D printing are already just as good, if not better, than those manufactured by traditional methods. In traditional manufacturing, making metal and plastic objects can be a wasteful process. Plenty of chunky parts are produced and surplus material used. When aircraft makers manufacture metal parts, up to 90% of the material is cut away. Metal parts use less energy and reduce waste to a minimum. And finished 3D printed products can be up to 60% lighter than their machined counterparts. The aviation industry alone saves billions of dollars through this weight reduction, mainly due to fuel.