Various advanced techniques and equipment have been developed over past few decades in Horticulture and farming in order to control pests, improve disease resistance characteristics of crops, to destroy weeds that damage crops and to improve crop productivity. Advances in Agriculture and Horticulture help in maintenance of food security, safety and sustainability. Discuss recent advances in Agriculture and Horticulture at AGRI 2021.
A greenhouse is a structure in which plants that need controlled climatic conditions are grown. It is commonly made up of glass. This size of these structures ranges from small sheds to industrial-sized buildings. A tiny greenhouse is known as a cold frame. The interior of a greenhouse is exposed to sunlight in cold weather to make it warmer than the external ambient temperature, protecting the crops. The chief crops grown in greenhouses are pepper, tomato, cucumber, lettuce, herbs, and strawberry.
Poly House: Polyhouse is a category of greenhouse where specific polythene sheet is used as a covering material under which the crops can be grown in partially or completely regulated climatic conditions. The greenhouses were traditionally constructed on wooden frames with glass cladding material. With the advancement of plastic technology, glass is replaced with plastic material. Polyhouses are more appropriate for tropical and subtropical regions like India.
Agricultural Entomology is a multidisciplinary area of research. It is applied ecology with roots in plant protection and the population dynamics of insects. Insects play a role in agriculture. Agricultural Entomology is the study of insects both beneficial and harmful to crops and farm animals in relation to agriculture.
Pest management Weeds, diseases, pests can cause irreversible damage to farm animals and agricultural crops. Approaches to manage such weeds, diseases and pests include the use of pesticides or biological pest control covered under Pest Management
Agroecology is a promising alternative to industrial agriculture, with the potential to avoid the negative social and ecological consequences of input-intensive production. ... Permaculture is one such agroecological movement, with a broad international distribution and a unique approach to system design. Permaculture can be understood as the growth of agricultural ecosystems in a self-sufficient and sustainable way. This form of agriculture draws inspiration from nature to develop synergetic farming systems based on crop diversity, resilience, natural productivity, and sustainability
Olericulture is a branch of horticulture concerned with the production, storage, processing, and marketing of vegetables or the farming of plants for use of edible parts. It is the science of growing vegetables and non- herbaceous plants for food. It covers crop establishment, including cultivar selection, seedbed preparation and establishment of vegetable crops by seed and transplants.Pomology is the branch of botany that deals with fruits and cultivation of fruit. It is also known as fruticulture. Pomological research is mainly focuses on the development, enhancement, cultivation and physiological studies of fruit trees. The aims of fruit tree enhancement include improvement of fruit quality, regulation of production periods, and production cost reduction. Those specialised in pomology are called pomologists.soil science and agricultural chemistry Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry is a Master Level Program which concentrate on utilization of soil, soil structure, its properties and soil management for benefits to humankind. The course aims at providing knowledge about developing manageable and sustainable agricultural production strategies.
Aquaculture refers to farming and harvesting of fish, molluscs, aquatic plants, shellfish, algae, and other organisms in all types of water environments for human consumption, restoration of threatened and endangered species populations, wild stock population improvement, for building aquariums, and fish cultures and habitat restoration. It is also referred to as aqua farming. It is the farming of aquatic organisms.
Apiculture refers to the act of cultivating honeybees and is also known as Bee Keeping. In Apiculture the bees are bred commercially in apiaries where a large number of beehives are kept. The bees are reared to produce wax and honey. Beeswax is commercially used in the cosmetic and medical industry. It is also used as a coating for cheese, and as a food additive.
A policy orientation for food security and safety include state-wise, previous, current and future policy issues, and cope-wise sustainability of agriculture. The particular part of food distribution in our society can be examined through the research of the changes in the food supply chain. Globalization, in particular, has significant effects on the food supply chain by validating scale effect in the food distribution industry. Provision of an adequate amount of essential nutrients to human beings has ever been the challenge in the province of food security. Hence, malnutrition is heavily interlinked to food security consideration, yet difficult to be eliminated. food security and policy, therefore, become magnetic in the province of research.
Agricultural Biotechnology refers to the combination of biotechnology tools and techniques like genetic engineering, molecular markers, molecular diagnostics, vaccines, and tissue culture to improve agricultural productivity, quality, diversity and species protection. Agricultural Biotechnology is used to cope up with challenges which usually cannot be solved by traditional methods and practices. Agricultural Biotechnology is also implied in climate adaptation, stress management, and disease management. Biotechnology has helped modern technologies to deal with the global food crisis.
Agroecosystems, are defined as communities of plants and animals interacting with their physical and chemical environments that have been modified by people to produce food, fibre, fuel and other products for human consumption and processing (Maes, 2018). They are composed by cropland and grassland, and cover about 47 % of the EUâ€™s land area. To a very large degree these are managed ecosystems, only some grassland habitats exist in fact under a natural state. The history of agriculture spans for several millennia, a sufficient time to have specific species and habitats coevolving together with human management. The latter is key to maintain agroecosystems in good condition. But what is a good condition for a managed ecosystem, therefore in an ecosystem that exists to a great extent for the benefit of humans? The approach taken in this report is that a good condition requires balance: in the use of natural resources while maintaining biodiversity, in the supply of a set of ecosystems services, in the necessity to fulfil the needs of current as well as of future generations
Agronomy is the science and technology of producing and using plants in agriculture for food, fuel, fiber, recreation, and land restoration. Agronomy has come to encompass work in the areas of plant genetics, plant physiology, meteorology, and soil science. It is the application of a combination of sciences like biology, chemistry, economics, ecology, earth science, and genetics. Professionals in the field of agronomy are called agronomists. Agroecology is the management of agricultural systems with an emphasis on ecological and environmental perspectives. This area is closely associated with work in the areas of sustainable agriculture, organic farming, and alternative food systems and the development of alternative cropping systems.
Agroecology is a study of ecological processes in relation to agricultural production systems.
Agroecology can be defined as the ecology of the agricultural systems. It is a farming approach that is stimulated by natural ecosystems. It combines local and scientific knowledge and applies ecological and social methods to agricultural systems, concentrating on the relations between plants, animals, humans, and the environment. Sustainable agriculture is agriculture in sustainable ways to meet present food and textile requirements of the society, without compromising the ability for current or future generations to meet their needs. There are various approaches to improve the sustainability of agriculture. It is necessary to develop flexible business process and farming practices, when developing agriculture within sustainable food systems.
Sustainable agriculture often incorporates a wide range of conventional and organic production practices.