Antibiotics are powerful medicines that fight bacterial infections. Used properly, antibiotics can save lives. They either kill bacteria or keep them from reproducing. When harmful bacteria are excessive our immune system cannot fight them all and Antibiotics are useful in this scenario. The session is open to discuss on discovery of antibiotics, mechanism, types of antibiotics, usage of drugs, side effects and the serious issues of overdose, Interaction with other drugs, Allergic reactions caused by the use of antibiotics, Applications of antibiotics.
Antibiotics form part of a wider range of antimicrobial agents, a group which also includes antifungals, antivirals, antiprotozoal and disinfectants. This group is also known as chemotherapeutic agents. The session is open for clinical pharmacology of antibiotics, Drug therapy, Pathophysiology, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, Drug screening, characterization, , synthesis and assays for therapeutic efficacy, Drug disposition, Regulations needed for the approval of antibiotics, Requirements for production of antibiotics, Clinical trials, Structure – Activity relationship, Antibiotic prophylaxis.
Antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria are increasingly prevalent in hospitals and the community. New antibiotics are needed to combat these bacterial pathogens, but progress in developing them has been slow. The session is open to discuss on synthetic tailoring, discovery of new scaffolds, designing screens that avoid rediscovering old scaffolds, repurposing libraries of synthetic molecules for use as antibiotics, Exploring microbial niches for products, molecular target selection, improving libraries to overcome resistance, Safety and efficacy, Vaccines available for the diseases
The sequencing of the first complete bacterial genome in 1995 heralded a new era of hope for antibacterial drug discoverers, who now had the tools to search entire genomes for new antibacterial targets. The session is open to genomics approach to antibacterial discovery, target-based approach, Screening for new classes of drugs with novel modes of action, optimization of novel chemical structures, and development of novel non antimicrobial-based methods.
Antibiotics come under Schedule H. This is a class of prescription drugs appearing as an appendix to the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 introduced in 1945. These are drugs which cannot be purchased over the counter without the prescription of a qualified doctor. The manufacture and sale of all drugs are covered under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules. It is revised at times based on the advice of the Drugs Technical Advisory Board, part of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. OTC sales make them easily available, which otherwise means their irrational use. This paves way for rapid emergence of resistant strains of dangerous bacteria with serious implications for the future of our society.
The antibiotic resistance problem is caused by the evolution and transfer of genes that confer resistance to medically important antibiotics into human pathogens. The acquisition of such resistance genes by pathogens complicates disease treatment, increases health care costs, and increases morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. As antibiotic resistance continues to evolve, antibiotics of so-called last resort become even more precious. Reducing or preventing the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes into human pathogens is currently of high international importance. The session is open to Antibiotic prudency, bacteriophage therapy, predatory bacteria, bacteriocins, and competitive exclusion of pathogens, Immunotherapeutics, Antibodies, Vaccines and gut microbiota modulation.
Acquired bacterial antibiotic resistance can result from the mutation of normal cellular genes, the acquisition of foreign resistance genes, or a combination of these two mechanisms. The session is open for most common resistance mechanisms employed by bacteria, alteration of the antimicrobial, performing / introducing mutation in the antimicrobial target site, active efflux of the antimicrobial across the cell membrane, types of antibiotic resistance, about horizontal gene transfer, molecular genetic work.
Antibiotic shortage is of great concern to FDA and healthcare community as many of the antibiotics were the sole drugs to treat certain antibiotic-resistant infections for certain infectious conditions. Drug shortages pose a serious challenge for health care institutions, often interfering with patient care. A common practice during a drug shortage is to select an alternate therapeutic; however, these agents often present challenges and may create safety concerns. Patient harms including adverse events and medication errors may occur. Patients may also file complaints because of drug shortages. The session is open to discuss on Manufacturing site problems, shortage of raw materials, low commercial incentives, lack of approved manufacturers, Defect in packaging and labelling.
Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. The session is open to drug components, levels of impurity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics relationship, in vitro effectiveness, therapeutic effectiveness in experimental models, marketing authorization of generic antibiotic drugs.
Antibiotic drugs are commonly used in veterinary medicine to treat infectious diseases that are caused by bacteria and certain other microorganisms. There are many different classes of antibiotics available for use in animals where some are effective against a wide range of organisms, while others are more closely targeted. When given a prescription from your veterinarian for your pet, make sure that it is given exactly as instructed and that the entire prescription is given. Not following dosage schedules or not giving all of the prescription can cause a relapse, a reinfection, or development of antibiotic-resistant organisms. The session is open to using specific and appropriate supportive treatment to improve the animal’s ability to overcome the infection and associated disease conditions.