National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Cairo, Egypt
Mohamed Y. M. Aly National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Cairo, Egypt
This review provides a summary of the toxic effects of heavy metals on fish. In the aquatic environment, these metals are important pollutants and are found in all ecosystems and are found in large quantities. Some heavy metals such as Cadmium, iron, copper, zinc, and lead have the advantage of accumulating in tissues and poisoning fish. These minerals can effectively affect biological processes, and fish reproduction, impair the immune system, and cause pathological changes. Therefore, heavy metals play an important role as a vital predictor of pollutants affecting the health and life of fish environments. These minerals cause organ damage even at low levels of exposure, so they have recently been classified as carcinogens. For all the above-mentioned reasons, this review has been written to contribute to the role of heavy metals in the environment, the toxic mechanism, the toxic effects on fish, and the health of the human consumption of fish. Also, this article reviews the Histopathological change and biomarkers when exposed to heavy metal contamination.