Dr. Walia earned a PhD, Mineral Sciences, Miami University (Ohio), an MS in Mineral Sciences from Miami University, an MS in Geology from Punjab University, and a BS in Geology and Chemistry from Punjab University. His professional affiliations include the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Defense Preparedness Association, Professional Environmental Marketing Association and the Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute. His field of concentration included fossil fuel energy with a focus on clean coal and coal conversion processes, and research in the environmental aspects of fossil fuel energy systems. Prior to joining Atlantic Research, he was Technical Director at United Coal Company.
Myriad of technologies been increasingly proving out for biofuels production especially since 1973 oil embargo, but unable to remain competitive during falling oil prices. Now almost 6 + times since oil embargo. Now increasing pollution and carbon concerns and mandates posing further challenge for commercial viability. Almost 70% of oil still cost <$ 10 to produce, especially in OPEC+ countries. Trillion+ barrels of oil reserve exist, so long term stable acceptable prices are unlikely. We reimagine coal to be biomass instead of being fossil, a misnomer for coals and even oil. We used wood eating termites to feed on coals. From their guts, isolated unique microbes, adapted to digest coals to produce gas without having to burn the coal. Gas is converted to biofuels. Residue from digestor is converted into organic humic products. No wastes produced. Humic matter is same humus or soil organic matter of fertile soils. So far, we know is unique to our planet. Soils are the fourth largest storehouse of carbon as humic substances. First are sedimentary rocks, second coal, oil, gas and third oceans. Fifth is air. Today, depleting soils is equally at peril as increasing carbon in our air. Note below business proposition based on total value chain use of coal for producing competitively priced aviation fuel and co products. It mimics Rockefeller oil refinery model which even today remain economically viable by producing fuels and non-energy products. Ours reimagined coal offers to produce aviation fuel as low as $0.50 per gallon, while resulting in 35%IRR. It will result in carbon intensity of sustainable aviation fuel net -200 gm of CO2e/MJ compared to almost 90 from petroleum. Plus, stable source of billions of gallons of biofuels from huge resources of coals available worldwide for several more centuries.
Ahmed Jado is working in Mansoura University, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Mansoura 35516, Egypt. His research interest is in biofuels and bioenergy.
An experimental study has been done to examine the performance and emission of a diesel engine using different blend ratios of waste oil biodiesel (20 %, 40 %, 60 %, 80 %, and 100 %) at different engine speeds, namely 500 rpm, 750 rpm, 1000 rpm, 1250 rpm, and 1500 rpm. At each speed, the engine was operated at no load, quarter, half, three quarters, and full load for different blending ratios. The performance parameters evaluated include Brake Power (BP), Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), air to fuel ratio (AFR), excess air factor, brake thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency and the temperature of exhaust gas whereas exhaust emissions include specific emissions of O2, CO, CO2, and NOx. These parameters were assessed in diesel engine commonly utilized in the agriculture sector. Biodiesel blends result in a decrease of brake power by 30.8 %, decreases in air to fuel ratio by 18 %, decreases in brake thermal efficiency by 21 %, decreases in volumetric efficiency by 10.7 % and increases in brake specific fuel consumption by 32.18 %. The temperature of exhaust gas increases with the biodiesel fuel blends. Specific emission of O2, CO, and NOx increases with increasing the percentage of biodiesel in fuel blends. Specific emission of CO2 decreases with increasing the rate of biodiesel in fuel blends. The results suggest that biodiesel obtained from waste oil could be a decent substitute to diesel fuel in the diesel engine.
Lorenc Gordani is Professor of Business and Public Law, Head of the Department of Professional Masters in the Faculty of Law at the Tirana Business University (TBU), Albania. His research interest is in biofuels and bioenergy sources.
Albania is considered in a distinguished position among the Western Balkan countries regard sustainable developments. In specific, the government has reached important targets with renewable energies, although it failed to meet the 2020 target fully. This makes questionable even the reach of them of 2030. Regarding the above situation, analysing in deep detail, we see that minor progress has been made related to biofuel and bioenergy. Then, primarily become to understand their potential, the opportunities offered, and identify the recommended measures to be undertaken. Developments that make us first identify the legal and regulatory framework on the production of green electricity in Albania and the option of its use for heating. In contemporary, the analysis will focus on the identity of the measures that can lead to the green target in transport, based on the initiative for a long time passed to parliament but without achieving a practical result.
The above will be based on daily practical experience and analysis, focusing on the latest updates of pertinent legal, sub-legal, and regulatory and policy frameworks. Further, it will be complete with the understanding of the factual situation in the country, based on some rapid comparative references to similar aspects in the countries of the region. All will follow with the drawing of the take of the summary conclusions and our recommendation for needed intervention proposes regarding the efficiency put in practice of biofuels and bioenergy projects to fulfil the green target through the improvement of the energy mix in the country.
My name is Lütfi Can KocabaÅŸ. I was born in 1997 in Turkey. After completing my primary and high school education in Konya's EreÄŸli district, I went to Erzurum for university education. And I started my undergraduate education in the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics at Erzurum Technical University. During my undergraduate education, I received high-level theoretical and practical training from my esteemed university professors. And under the leadership of ETÜ-KARPAM, I took a responsible role in the eastern anatolia career fair. In the 3rd year of my undergraduate education, I continued my 1-semester undergraduate education in Poland under the leadership of the student exchange program and completed it successfully. In the last years of my undergraduate education, I started working in the laboratory of our university on the treatment of cancer and genetic diseases with my teacher Mehmet Enes Arslan. Afterwards, I got a job as a quality control analyst at the dairy production facility ARPACI to improve my skills in microbiology and developed my skills in microbiology there. Since I was always hungry for self-development, I started my internship on biomass at a company called Celignis Limited in Ireland at the end of my undergraduate period. And after finishing my education there, I returned to my country.
In this article, plants used in biofuel production and biofuel technologies were investigated. In the production of biodiesel and bioethanol rapeseed, wheat, straw, sorghum, rice, potato, rye, barley, corn, sugar beet, sugar cane, sweet sorghum and plants such as tobacco are used. In biogas production, animal, agricultural, food industry, vegetable, fruit, oil industry and slaughterhouse residues and waste water treatment sludge are used. Biofuels bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas, biomethanol, biodimethyl ether and bio-oil. The most common biofuels today are bioethanol and biodiesel. Biofuels are based on renewable biological resources, have very good biodegradability, non-toxicity, It has been determined that it increases its usability due to reasons such as very low emissions when burned and being environmentally friendly.
Jesus David Coral Medina has completed his PhD in 2016 from Federal of Paraná University, in Brazil. At present, develops a postdoctoral stay in Pasto Colombia, funded by Ceiba Foundation, and Cooperativa University as a receiving entity, working on coffee bean fermentation to improve the final cup test. Since 2013 he has been working on biomass transformation whiting biorefinery concept, highlighting the experimental studies about biomass pretreatment using different techniques such as Steam Explosion, Sequential Acid-Alkaline, Liquid Hot Water and Organosolve. The experimental approach has been complemented with techno-economic analysis of different biorefinery configuration, using Aspen Plus, MatLab, Phyton and Excel.
Due to growing environmental concerns mainly related to non-renewable fuels and high added-value chemicals, new solutions should reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Biorefineries, which use lignocellulosic biomass as raw material, emerges as a promising alternative to replace fossil fuels and to avoid competition between food and fuel production for arable land and drinking water. Sugarcane is one of the most harvested crops in the world, mainly in the equatorial zone. One tonne of processed cane generates between 300 and 400 kg of bagasse. This work proposes a biorefinery configuration for the co-production of ethanol, xylitol, lignin, and cellulose acetate, analyzing two different scenarios in the context of low sugarcane availability. The analysis included the determination of mass, total capital investment, total manufacturing costs, CO2 footprint, and water consumption. The cellulose acetate, ethanol, and xylitol production were economically viable only if lignin is considered a product. Positive net income, with return on investment in at least ten years, was achieved. Based on the environmental assessment, the carbon capture capacity is about 400 kg per tonne of sugarcane included in the process was determined.