The outbreak of COVID-19 has created colossal challenges for higher education institutions. The urgent and unplanned transformation from traditional learning to distance learning occurred while the majority of institution lack sufficient resources and experience of managing this transformation. Besides, the majority of higher education staff were unready and lack the appropriate support. This transformation and exceptional circumstances have amplified the inequalities among males and females in higher education institutions, leading to extra pressures and responsibilities on females which in turn is affecting their productivity. This study explores the various challenges which higher education staff were experiencing during COVID-19 pandemic, identifies inequalities among males and females and recommends ways of managing these inequalities. To achieve this objective, 30 semi-structured interviews were conducted with instructors both male sand females from four Jordanian universities. Data was coded and analysed using NVIVO 12. The results demonstrate that there is a gender gap in high education institutions in Jordan; females are disproportionately burdened with extra paid and unpaid workload during COVID-19 pandemic. This inequality is affecting females' productivity and promotion. Keywords: Gender inequalities, workload, productivity, Covid-19, Jordan, Higher education.
Responding to ethical dilemmas within the workplace is a growing issue for both employees and employers. Within the hospitality industry these ethical dilemmas can encompass a myriad of work settings and environments. From the restaurant floor, to serving alcoholic beverages within a club or bar environment, to managing a difficult customer within a hotel environment; hospitality workers facing a multitude of ethical dilemmas and situations.
For hospitality students, the ethics of their chosen profession and resolving possible future ethical dilemmas remain, largely unaddressed within current undergraduate programs or course offerings. These issues are largely addressed by their new employer during employment orientation sessions or staff induction programs.
It is the researcher’s belief that such ethics training be commenced much earlier and be an integral part of any strong, robust hospitality curriculum or syllabus. In this regard, such courses should be reflective and mindful, of current ethical dilemmas and challenges within the hospitality industry.
This research currently in progress, aims to explore hospitality students’ perceptions and awareness of future possible ethical dilemmas that they may possibly encounter within their chosen profession. Ethics and sound ethical business behavior has become in some societies, a growing and emerging concern. Whilst ethics’ courses well be established in the business sector, such targeted programs have been lacking in the hospitality sector and in particular, in hospitality curriculums and syllabi.
The purpose of this study was to highlight possible ethical scenarios and present these to hospitality students. By exploring their perceptions, interpretations and possible resolution of such dilemmas, it is hoped that they will build and strengthen their own personal ethical philosophies and work-place practices and responses.
Keywords: ethics, hospitality, dilemmas, students, education
Nicki Marquardt is a professor of cognitive, industrial and organizational psychology at the Rhine-Waal University at Kamp-Lintfort, Germany. He obtained his PhD in cognitive psychology from the Leuphana University of Lueneburg in 2009. His research activity has centered on the study of implicit social cognition, human error, safety culture, and business ethics.
Ethical decision making in business has become an emerging topic within the last years. Classical economic factors of profitability, efficiency, and competitive advantage have to be aligned with ethical issues such as sustainability, occupational and product safety. Therefore, many organizations have started to train their managers for handling ethical dilemmas in their daily business. Most business ethics trainings are designed to change not only the ethical-decision-making-process but also its underlying causes such as moral attitudes. Research in the field of cognitive and moral psychology has shown that moral attitudes can rely on two different modes of information processing. Conscious information processing leads to explicit moral attitudes, whereas unconscious information processing results in implicit moral attitudes. The primary objective of the present study was to measure the transformation of ethical decision making and its determinants (implicit and explicit moral attitudes) by business ethics training. An experimental design was applied to test the effectiveness of business ethics training. Different methods (e.g., questionnaires, reaction-time measures, eye-tracking) were used to measure the change in implicit and explicit moral attitudes, and in ethical decision making. The study revealed changes in explicit moral attitudes and in ethical decision making, whereas implicit moral attitudes remained unchanged. Practical implications for future designs of business ethics trainings, evaluation, and ethical transformation are discussed.