Food preservation is to prevent the growth of microorganisms , as well as slowing the oxidation of fats that cause rancidity. Some traditional methods of preserving food have been shown to have a lower energy input and carbon footprint, when compared to modern methods. Knowing how to preserve food has been crucial all over our history as humans. Study that before the introduction of refrigeration, which was eventually devised in the 18th century, but was not perfected and widespread until the 20th century, most of development had to make do devoid of refrigeration and freezing.
Adulteration usually refers to the mixing of other harmful materials with food or drink to increase the quantity. As a result of adulteration, food or drink becomes impure and unfit for human consumption. It leads to the loss of nutrient content in the food. Adulterated food is unsafe because it may be lethal and can affect human health and it could degrade the nutrients essential for proper growth and development of human body. Some of the common adulterated foods are milk and milk products, atta, edible oils, cereals, condiments (whole and ground), pulses, coffee, tea, confectionary, baking powder, non - alcoholic beverages, vinegar, besan and curry powder.
Food and Beverages are processed to improvise the quality of the food. The processing of food is done to preserve the food. Once if any food item is processed the lifespan of that food gets increased. Many processing techniques are in use to improve the quality of food. There are both natural and artificial food and beverage processing methods, many methods are in use from the ancient period.
In addition to providing the substance for building and maintaining the body, the energy for all of the body's functions comes from the food consumed. Further, there is increasing evidence that mental processes and behavioural attitudes are influenced by nutritional status and specific nutrients. The food scientist must consider the nutritive aspects of food from two broad points of view: first, what nutrients do foods contain and what are man's requirements for these; and second, what are the relative stabilities of these nutrients and how are they affected by food processing and handling. The science of nutrition, concerned with these broad areas, also deals with the physiological and biochemical phenomena of food utilization as related to health.
Food preservation on the other hand fundamentally aiming at minimizing post harvest losses of food while improving the shelf-life and value supplement. As food safety concerns started to surface with food borne illnesses, food safety management systems slowly progressed and developed to today's sophisticated levels. Food and water borne diseases are major public health problems worldwide and an important cause of malnutrition, in infants and young children. Food safety and quality management systems control food safety hazards and ensure safe food supplies for a well nourished and healthy nation. In addition, food safety and quality management often reduce post harvest losses and increase food availability to enhance food security. Integrating food safety and quality in food supply chains increases and sustains the supply of quality safe foods in internal markets.
Recent advancements in food and beverage sector includes artificial intelligence development in food industry, smart packaging systems like Nano packaging, edible packaging films are virally growing. Apart from smart packaging many new innovations such as food labelling, fully computerize the food industry with robotics and automations, which would further lead to a totally new era in food industry. The food and beverages conference mainly deals with the advancements such as nano packaging, plasma technology, robotics etc.,
The widespread growth of technological advances stack up with electricity which has revolutionized food industry and prompted the manufacture of new specialist food processing machineries. To design the machineries immense knowledge about the mass transfers, kinetics involved in flow of fluids is preferred. This session of food conference deals with the most important part of the industry, the designing of equipment’s, food plant layout design, and implementation of sensors in food and beverage industry.
Fermentation is defined as converting carbohydrates to alcohol or inorganic acids using microorganisms. As the microorganisms divide, lactic acid is formed, which stops the growth of bad bacteria. The lactic acid is also what gives fermented foods that very specific ‘tangy’ or ‘acidic’ taste. Fermented foods can last for many months (some products even lasting multiple years) as long as they are stored in a cool, dark place and kept in the solution of salt and water known as brine. Fermentation can also make food healthier and safer to consume. For instance, in the Middle Ages, drinking water was hazardous because it frequently contained pathogens that could spread disease. Making the water into beer made it safe to drink, as any deadly bacteria previously present in the water were killed during the brewing process. Additionally, since microorganisms can produce vitamins as they ferment, the beer had added nutrients in it from the barley and various other ingredients. The most regularly consumed fermented food and drink would be cheese, beer, wine, yogurt, cured sausage and sourdough bread. Many store-bought fermented foods, like sauerkraut or pickles, are not authentic as they are often preserved in vinegar instead of the traditional and naturally occurring beneficial bacteria. Due to North America’s strict health and safety concerns, these foods are also often pasteurised, which robs the foods of their nutrients and minerals.
Dairy foods are which extracted from or containing milk of mammals, cows, buffaloes, goat, sheep, camels and humans. This also includes yogurt, cheese and butter. As the dairy products are rich in nutrition their commercial value is high and has a greater demand in the future. Most of the dairy products are used in the preparation of commercial foods such as sweets.
Nutrition is a process where food is taken in and utilised by the body for growth, to keep the body healthy, and to interchange the tissue. Good nutrition is essential for good health. Eating the healthy foods before, during, and after cancer treatment can help the patient feel better and stay stronger. A healthy diet includes eating and drinking enough of the foods and liquids that have the important nutrients (vitamins, minerals, protein, carbohydrates, fat, and water) the body needs. When the body does not get or cannot absorb the nutrients needed for health, it causes a condition called malnutrition or malnourishment.
Agriculture and fisheries are very much dependent on the climate. Rise in the temperature, carbon dioxide and other environmental conditions can increase some crop yields in some areas. Changes in the environmental conditions and severity of droughts and floods could pose tasks for farmers and ranchers and threaten food safety. Meanwhile, warmer water temperatures are likely to cause the habitat ranges of many fish and shellfish species to shift, which could disturb ecosystems. Overall, climate change could make it more hard to grow crops, raise animals, and catch fish in the same ways and same places as we have done in the past. we are all aware that certain fruits , vegetables grow at certain conditions those are known as seasonal crops, these are all completely dependent on the climate conditions.
There is a long established system of food safety control and regulation which occurs at the federal (interstate commerce and import) and regional (intrastate commerce) level. The main agencies involved at the federal level include the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act 1938 (FDCA) as amended sets out the authority of the FDA whilst the Meat and Poultry Inspection Acts and the Egg Inspection Act set out the authority of FSIS. Each state however also has its own agencies and regulations which each differ in their organisation and complexity. In addition certain state agencies undertake inspections, under contract, on behalf of the FDA.
The Centre for Disease Control, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department for Home Security also contribute to the regulation and control of food safety. here have been a number of recent high profile food incidents related to both domestic and imported food which have lead to the introduction of new legislation– the Food Safety Modernisation Act(FSMA) 2011. This is reportedly the most significant item of legislation in over 70 years and introduces a new approach to the regulation of food safety. It moves away from the previous method of monitoring and reacting to food instances when they occur to one of prevention.