Joseph Fomusi Ndisang is the Associate Professor in the University of Saskatchewan College of Medicine, Department of Physiology. He received Postdoctoral training in Physiology from the University of Saskatchewan College of Medicine in 2000-2005. He obtained a PhD in Pharmacology & Toxicology from the University of Florence, Italy in 2000. He obtained a Doctor of Pharmacy degree from University of Florence, Italy in 1995. He has received several distinguished awards and Distinctions including: Fellow of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (FCCS), Fellow of the American Heart Association (FAHA), Fellow of the International College of Angiology (FICA), Young Investigator Award by International College of Angiology, Young Investigator Award by the American Society of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics-Division for Drug Discovery, Development & Regulatory Affairs, Young Investigator Award by the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine, Caroline tum Suden/Frances A Hellebrandt Professional Opportunity Award for Meritorious Research by the American Physiological Society and Recognition Award for Meritorious Research by a Young Investigator by the American Physiological Society. He has published more than 64-full length manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals and more than 80 abstracts. Dr. Ndisang has served as external PhD examiner for several Universities in Canada, has given more than 30-invited talks, and has also served as peer-reviewer for several reputed journals and granting agencies in United States, United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand and Poland.
Impaired insulin signalling and deregulated glucose metabolism are associated with the progressive alterations in structure and function of vital organs like the heart and kidneys in diabetic patients. Our recent studies indicate that upregulating the heme-oxygenase (HO) with HO-inducers like hemin and hemearginate potentiates insulin signaling and improve glucose metabolism in different animal models of type-1 and type-2 diabetes including (i) streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, (ii) Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF), (iii) obese Zucker rats, (iv) Goto-Kakizaki rats (lean type-2 diabetic model) as well as other models that display glucose intolerance like spontaneously hypertensive rats and uninephrectomized DOCA-salt hypertensive rats, suggesting a universal role of the HO-system in regulating insulin signalling and glucose metabolism. The administration of HO-inducers (i) attenuated inflammatory mediators including cytokines like TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β that in turn stimulate chemokines such as MCP-1 and MIP-1α to promote macrophage-M1 infiltration, (ii) suppressed oxidative stress including NF-κB, activating-protein (AP)-1, AP-2, and c-Jun-Nterminal-kinaseand 8-isoprostane, (iii) enhanced fundamental proteins implicated in the insulin signal transduction pathway like IRS-1, PI3K and PKB, (iv) reduced insulin/glucose intolerance (IPITT), (v) increased insulin sensitivity and the inability of insulin to enhance GLUT4 was overturned. These were associated with improved cardiac hemodynamics and the attenuation of cardiac hypertrophy, collagen deposition in cardiomyocytes and the reduction of left ventricular longitudinal muscle fiber thickness, a pathophysiological feature of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Similarly, HO reduced renal histological lesions such as glomerulosclerosis, tubular necrosis, tubular vacuolization, interstitial macrophage infiltration and abated pro-fibrotic/extracellular-matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin that deplete nephrin, an important transmembrane protein which forms the scaffolding of the podocyte slit-diaphragm allowing ions to filter but not massive excretion of proteins, hence proteinuria. Collectively, these studies indicate that diabetic complications such as cardiomyopathy and nephropathy were markedly improved, and suggest that the HO-system could be considered an important switch box that when potentiated adequately can rescue organ damage in diabetes. Thus, HO may be explored in the search for novel and effective remedies capable of reducing both patient and healthcare-cost burden associated with diabetes and related cardio-renal complications.
Marco Songini is the Director Center for the Treatment of Complications of Diabetes, San Michele Hospital Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy. He has published over 161 papers on the subject of atherosclerosis and epidemiology of Diabetes. He is a recognized expert in the etiopathology and epidemiology of type 1 diabetes and diabetes in general. After obtaining a degree in Medicine from the University of Cagliari in 1977, he obtained his specialization in Diabetology from University of Turin (1980), his specialization in Endocrinology from University of Rome (1984) and specialization in Dietology from University of Cagliari (1988).
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) results from an autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing β cells, with lack of insulin. Newly significant advances in technology have been achieved in the treatment and quality of life in diabetic patients but the causes are still uncertain, so its prevention is still far away. Genetic factors are relatively well known, even most people genetically predisposed to T1D do not develop it. The genetic factors alone do not explain the increased risk for T1D, sharply increased over the last 40 years in Sardinia, reaching the second highest risk in the world after Finland. The environmental factors are probably very important for the development and the increase of T1D risk. The epigenetic interrelationships are to be cleared at most. All these factors make the Island an ideal region for prevention of T1D. Consequently, several studies have been carried out in the Island toward the aetiopathogenesis of T1D. As the primary prevention trials, we have participated to the TRIGR study (Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk), the first T1D prevention study (primary, double blind) across the world that started in 2002. The hypothesis of the study was that the early exposure to cow's milk could have accelerated the destruction of β cells in genetically predisposed individuals and that the weaning with an extensively hydrolysed formula could decrease the risk of T1D in young children with a family history for T1D. In Sardinia, the TRIGR study was conducted at the Diabetes Center of Brotzu Hospital in Cagliari, one of the 77 centres that had participated across the entire world (Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States) with over 2,800 children recruited. The final result of the TRIGR Study was recently published (2 Jan 2018 in the Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA): no correlation was found between the risk of T1D and early exposure to cow's milk. As a result, the question is still open: "What are the environmental factors that contribute to increasing the risk for T1D?". The T1D in Sardinia still remains an “enigma”. Recent studies have linked the elevated presence of Micobacterium avium paratubercolosis (MAP, a bacterium presents frequently in cow's milk) to the onset of T1D in the Sardinian population. The unique geochemistry of Sardinia with its particular concentration of heavy metals has been hypothesised another triggering factor such as the exposure to heavy metals, already associated, in Sardinia, with the development of other autoimmune diseases. In our search for the correlation between the incidence of T1D and heavy metals distribution across Sardinia, a slight negative correlation (r = - 0.332; p = 0.0002) between zinc and T1D was described. These results would suggest a protective role of zinc in the development of the disease, and its deficiency could be a plausible triggering cofactor. A negative association between T1D risk and ultraviolet B (UV-B) solar irradiation has been suggested. We conducted an ecological analysis to verify the possible relationships between UV-B radiation levels and T1D risk in Sardinia. A standardized algorithm based upon the solar constant and the latitude of each Sardinian municipality has been used to calculate the amount of total solar irradiance. UV-B radiation during the winter solstice for each Sardinian municipality was then calculated. This value was adjusted to the annual average of cloudiness and to the percentage of direct solar irradiation of the territory. T1D incidence data were obtained through the Sardinian Diabetes Registry. The relationship between UV-B radiation and T1D incidence in Sardinia was assessed through a simple correlation analysis. A mild negative correlation (r=- 0.154; p= 0.002) was obtained between UV-B radiation and T1D incidence. A protective effect (even weak) of UV-B irradiance in T1D and/or a role of vitamin D deficiency on T1D risk was suggested by many authors and our results are consistent with this hypothesis (protective role of sun exposure?). From this, we hypothesize that the incidence of T1D could be influenced by exposure to multiple risk factors such as MAP, Common viruses, heavy metals, Zinc deficiency and solar irradiation which together would participate in raising the risk of incidence of diabetes. The search for the “puzzle” is still open: what environmental factors actually are involved in the disease and its prevention?
Christopher_Bryant, Professor of University of Montreal & University_of_Guelph, Canada with 50 years of research experience in peri-urban agriculture (France, Canada and other countries) and 26 years research experience in adaptation of agriculture to climate change and variability as well as 30 years’ experience in community development. He was a Professor in Geography, University_of_Waterloo for 20 years and Professor in Geography, University_de_Montreal for 24 years. He is also an Adjunct Professor in the School of Environmental Design and Rural Development at the University of Guelph, Canada.
This presentation focusses on what are the conditions that make for successful food projects using some examples of successful projects as well as unsuccessful projects. The presentation will then focus on the types of analysis that take into consideration the conditions of a specific territory (peri-urban ones primarily) and how to ensure that the projects become successful.
Shin-ichi Kayano graduated Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Human Life Science, Osaka City University, Japan, in 1985. He worked as a Senior Researcher of research institute, Miki Corporation, Japan, from 1985 through 2004. His job in Miki Corporation was the development of new products of functional foods, and study on functional components in fruits and vegetables. He was awarded a PhD in science in 2004, from Osaka City University, Japan, under the supervision of Professor Nobuji Nakatani. He joined the Kio University as a Professor in 2009. His current study is on the antioxidative, antimutagenic, and estrogenic ingredients in various fruits and vegetables, and the elucidation of chemical structures and action mechanism of these compounds.
The kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) is used as an ingredient in kudzu-starch which is an important material for cooking as well as processed foods in Japan. In this study, chemical structures, and estrogenic and antimutagenic activities of isoflavones isolated from the root of kudzu are investigated. The extract of kudzu root was purified with various chromatographic techniques to afford four isoflavone C-glycosides as 6"-O-α-D-glucopyranosylpuerarin (1), puerarin (2), 3'-methoxypuerarin (3), and 6"-O-α-D-apiofranosylpuerarin (4), and two aglycons as biochanin A (5), and formononetin (6), respectively. Four isoflavone C-glycosides, which are 8-C-β-D-glucosyl derivatives of daidzein, showed no estrogenic activity, on the other hand, daidzin, which is 7-O-β-D-glucoside of daidzein, exhibited the activity. These differences of the activities might be depended on the binding position (C-7 or C-8) or combination style (O- or C-) of glucose moiety to daidzein. Antimutagenic activity of daidzein, daidzin, puerarin, and 3'-methoxypuerarin were further assayed by Ames test. Daidzein showed the activity, on the other hand, three glucosids of daidzein showed no activity to suggest that regardless of the position or the style, binding of glucose moiety inhibit the antimutagenic potency of daidzein.
Transplantation of stem cell-derived beta cells has been a target of diabetes research for many years but has yet to mature into a therapeutic option. Dispersed islet-derived mesenchymal-like cells, induced by serum deprivation to undergo mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, aggregate into epithelial cell clusters (ECCs). ECCs implanted under kidney capsules of SKID mice tend to differentiate into β-cell colony. Albeit, in a large proportion of mice the implanted cells de-differentiate back to stem-like phenotype. As ECCs disperse and undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by re-addition of sera, we postulated that the differentiation failure in vivo may have been due to an agent in the host serum. We found that PDGF-BB alone mimics serum-induced ECCs’ dispersal accompanied by accumulation of cytoplasmic b-catenin and a decrease in the levels of insulin and glucagon mRNAs. Hence, PDGF-BB mediated serum-induced DIDs dispersal correlated with the activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway. In conclusion, we did fail like many others. In the second part of my talk, I will attempt to analyze the causes of the manifest failure to provide effective and reliable β-cell replacement for the last sixty years. Obviously, we may manipulate cells to change their physiology; the ultimate result, however, depends on many uncontrolled and/or unknown factors. Our understandings of the complexity of inter- and an intracellular interaction in vitro and in vivo is still too sketchy to allow prediction of therapeutic outcomes. Another detrimental factor may be our present system of publishing and funding of basic research.
Shirzad H has completed the PhD degree at the age of 45 years from University of Newcastle, Faculty of medicine, Royal Newcastle Hospital, Australia. Currently, she is the Professor of Immunology in Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Iran. She has more than 60 publications in International Scientific Indexing (ISI) journals.
Introduction and Aims: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the destruction of pancreatic beta-cells occurs by immune system cells. Aminopeptidase N (APN) or CD13 is a metalloprotease which acts on diabetes pathogenesis by various mechanisms. CD13/APN, is a molecule with multiple functions and have membrane bound and soluble forms. Membrane CD13 binds to its ligand and increases T cell activity and strengthens the immune responses. But soluble form destructs the inflammatory molecules and reduces the immune responses. To investigate the role of CD13 in the pathogenesis of diabetes, the expression frequency of this marker was measured on peripheral blood cells and its enzymatic activity was measured in serum of patients with diabetes.
Methods: In a case control study, 35 patients with type one diabetes were enrolled based on clinical findings. The control group included 35 healthy subjects who were age-sex matched with the patient group. CD13 serum activity was measured by spectrophotometry. The frequency of CD13 molecules expression was measured by flow cytometry.
Results: The results of this study showed that CD13 expression was significantly (P=0.001) increased in patients compared to control group. The activity of serum CD13 (sCD13) in the patient group was increased compared to the control group, (P=0.047).
Conclusion: According to the result of this study, CD13 has an important role in pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes. Therefore, inhibition of cell surface CD13 through blocking activation and migration of self-reactive lymphocytes might be effective in preventing complete destruction of the pancreatic cells in pre-diabetes individuals and reduction of the severity of the disease.
Sara Masoumi is 33 years old and has completed the MA degree in educational psychology in 2017 and she is currently studying PhD in Educational Psychology at the Shiraz University. She is the internal manager of the Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences. She has published more than 10 articles in reputed journals. Farkhondeh Sharif completed the degree of PhD from Sydney University. She is Editor- in-Chief of the International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. She has published more than 100 papers in reputed Journals.
Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder. The diabetic patients are likely to be affected by mental distress, especially depression. Psychologist should pay attention to the psychological needs of depressive patients by participating in an application of non-pharmacological treatment such as psycho-educational intervention. We aimed to assess the effect of Psycho-educational intervention on depression in patients with diabetes. This randomized controlled trial was performed in the diabetes clinics affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Sixty eligible patients suffering from depression were randomly divided into two groups by convenience sampling method, using random block allocation. The experimental group was randomly subdivided into three groups of 10 each and received eight sessions of psycho-education. The level of depression was checked before as well as 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 2 months after the intervention in both groups. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level was also checked before and 2 months after the intervention. Both groups were demographically homogeneous with no statistically significant difference. The trend in depression scores before as well as 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 2 months after the intervention was statistically significant in the experimental group (P ≤ 0.001), but not in the control group (P = 0.087). The results showed that HbA1c variation was statistically significant before and after the intervention in both groups (P ≤ 0.001). However, the mean variation of HbA1c was not statistically significant between the groups (P = 0.473). Psycho-educational intervention was feasible and produces positive mental health in patients with diabetes.
Mohammad Alfattani is a Consultant Pediatrician and also a member of Royal College of Physician (MRCP), UK since1989. He has received the certification of Arab board of pediatrics in 1990, Riyadh. He joined um AlQura University and teaching students, he is a Trainer in Saudi commission of health specialist and Pediatric Program Director. He published many paper and reported many special cases in pediatric.
A 10 F mnemonic is a tool to help healthcare provider to remember a large amount of information about healthy diet what is a healthy diet?” Many clinicians find themselves at a loss to answer this common question from patients. The difficulty of offering a simple answer is understandable; for that, it is important to weave simple and compelling recommendation about healthy diet. Just remember 10 F( 5F yes and 5F NO ) all clients visiting our clinics should be advised to increase their intake of Fluids , Fibers , Fruits & vegetables , Fish , healthy Fat (5F yes) and to avoid Fried food , Fast food , Factory food , unhealthy Fat , Fad added sugar (5F No) details for each will be conducted in the lecture.
Ngai Sai Ming has completed the degree of PhD from the University of Alberta, Canada. He is the Associate Professor at School of Life Sciences of Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK). Professor NGAI is the Director of The Chinese Medicinal Fungal Proteomics Laboratory (CUHK) and Investigator of State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology in CUHK. His research interest includes bioinformatics, proteomics, protein/peptide structural and functional studies, research and development on Modern Chinese Medicine.
Diabetes is one of the most challenging health problems. The global prevalence of diabetes in the adult population is 8.5, and it caused 1.6 million deaths worldwide in 2015. In human serum, for example, albumin and immunoglobulin comprise over 50% of total serum protein mass. The current proteomic technique is limited by the high dynamic range of protein concentration. In most of the biological sample, the dynamic range of protein concentration spans more than 10 orders of magnitude. This large range of concentration exceeds the analytical capabilities of most proteomic technique, hindering the detection of those low abundant, but important, proteins. To tackle this challenge, our research group is focusing on the technique of detecting the low abundant proteins in the complex biological sample. For example, in a serum biomarker discovery study for early diagnosis of diabetic complication, we have reduced the sample complexity by two pretreatment methods separately: ligands competition and depleting the high abundant proteins by immunodepletion. Interestingly, these two pretreatment methods result in two very different proteome profiles, whereas only < 6% of proteins were identified by both methods. Besides, we have found that a more comprehensive proteome profile could be generated by combining the data from both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) based mass spectrometry, which could enhance the detection of low abundant proteins. By comparing the proteome profile between the sera from patients with and without diabetic complications, we have identified several potential biomarkers, including the high-abundant proteins (e.g. haptoglobin and transferrin); as well as the low-abundant proteins (e.g. R3HCC1L and zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein).
Felix Amiri is the food sector chair of the Global Coalition for Sustained Excellence in Food & Health Protection (GCSE-FHP). He is a key contributor to the SSQA implementation manual published by AFISS. Felix teaches International Food Safety Law and Regulations at Conestoga College. He also serves as Technical Director and provides consulting services to various food companies. Felix has been directly involved in product/process development, quality assurance &operations management with various reputable companies, including Vese Food (Nigeria) Ltd., Unifine Richardson, Golden Valley Farms, Heinz (Martin Pet Foods) and YUM Brands International.
Common in the food industry are phrases like: “Our food safety management system is HACCP-based” or “we are audited by such and such audit scheme and inspected under this or that set of regulations”. These phrases often describe external-party impositions of Food Safety & Quality Assurance (FSQA) management requirements. Although some deliberations take place in the implementation of the imposed requirements or programs, they are not the same things as deliberately designed FSQA management models. From the perspective of SSQA (Safety, Security & Quality Assurance), an FSQA management model needs to be deliberately designed & implemented by an operation. The model also needs to cover more than a specific food safety concept, certification audit scheme or regulatory setup. In designing a suitable model, every operation needs to be aware of the external and internal instruments and influences involved in the management and monitoring of its food safety and quality assurance programs. The goal of the deliberately designed and implemented model should rightly be to deliver food that is safe and of acceptable quality to the consumers. A suitable & effective “model” for an operation needs to take into consideration the roles and processes of regulations, industry self-monitoring requirements, academic research, scientific and technological developments, industry knowledge and best practices, as well as consumer needs and other motivating factors that drive what operations do to ensure the safety and quality of food.
Tariq Ahmad Bhat is pursing PhD from SKUAST-K in Department of Microbiology. He has qualified JRF, NET, and SRF. He is the member of UGC board of studies for Kashmir University. Along with the publishing several papers in reputed journals he has published 2 books.
Malathion is a non-systemic broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide which is used for controlling sucking and chewing insects on fruits and vegetables. It has been analyzed that effects of different concentrations of malathion on yield and AMF colonization in Coriandrum sativum. It was found that, at recommended and low dosages, coriander does not show any significant reduction in yield and AMF infection percentage, but higher concentrations reduced yield and AMF infection percentage of coriander. After I sampling, the maximum AMF infection percentage was observed in Control and M ½ ND (62% and 52% respectively) and least was observed in M2ND (i.e., 38%). After II sampling, the AMF infection percentage decreased in MND (i.e., from 50% to 48%) and M2ND (i.e., from 38% to 36%) plants. In Control plants the AMF percentage increased from 62% to 68%, although M ½ ND also recorded a slight increase in AMF infection percentage from 52% to 54%. After III sampling, the maximum AMF percentage colonization was observed in Control (74%), M2ND (42%) treatment showed least AMF percentage colonization. Similar trend was also observed after 95 days (IV sampling) i.e., maximum in Control (76%) and least in M2ND (48%).
Nurshahirah Saleh has completed the MSc degree from University Technology Mara Selangor, Malaysia. Currently, she is pursuing the master of halal supply chain of food truck in Kuala Lumpur.
Purchasing and consuming foods sold by the food truck vendors is becoming a popular trend due to the hectic lifestyle of Malaysian people nowadays. Street-vended foods were usually produced in small mobile units (e.g., vans, trailers or carts) from which food was sold, mostly with inadequate layout and equipment, frequently associated with poor environmental sanitation, improper food handling and storage practices, as well as low quality of raw materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the implementation of halalan toyyiban practices among food truck vendors in Kuala Lumpur. Ten food trucks were selected from location at Dungun Street and Tengah Street in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur. The method used was fast observation questionnaire from the element in Malaysia Standard 1500:2009, Malaysia Standard 2400 and Food Act 1983 which covers the hygienic practices, halal logistics and transportation, halal practices and halalan- toyyiban control point analysis. The results show that the food truck vendors need to undergo practices in handling food using food truck as the part of storage and preparation of food were still low.
Adewale Omolola is a postdoctoral research fellow in the Department of Agricultural and Rural Engineering, University of Venda. He specializes in modeling and optimization of food processing operations.
Statement of the Problem: Luvhele and Mabonde banana varieties are bananas grown in Limpopo province of South Africa. They are rich in nutriments and antioxidants. Color is a main quality characteristic of food products that are affected by the drying conditions while texture changes in solid foods during processing by drying are an important cause of quality deterioration. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Optimization of oven drying conditions of Luvhele and Mabonde banana varieties were studied using response surface methodology. The drying was performed according to a central composite rotatable design to explore two sets of variables: oven temperatures (40, 50 and, 60C) and drying time (1260, 1080, and 900 min) for Luvhele; (40, 50 and, 60C) and (1260, 900, and 600 min) for Mabonde. The color and texture (hardness) data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analysis. Findings: Results indicated that L*, a*, b*, hue angle and hardness varied with drying conditions for the two banana varieties. Values to the hue angle ranged between 63.38 – 74.70 and 60.14 - 72.80 to dried slices of the banana varieties Luvhele and Mabonde. The hardness of dried slices of the banana varieties, Luvhele and Mabonde ranged between 1.15 - 14.62 N and 1.28 - 14.29 N, respectively. Oven temperature and drying time had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the overall color (hue) and hardness of Luvhele and Mabonde banana varieties. Models obtained for the prediction of overall color (hue) and hardness of dried slices of both banana varieties as a function of the process variables drying temperature and time had no significant (p > 0.05) lack of fit test, adequate and acceptable regression values: adjusted R between 078 and 0.80 coefficient of variance (CV) < 10%; hence the models obtained for the responses were adequate and acceptable. The drying conditions of 47.56C drying temperature and 944.87 min of drying time were found optimum to obtain a quality at desirability of 0.97 to the Luvhele variety; whereas 40C drying temperature and 646.17 min of drying duration with a desirability of 0.83 was predicted as optimum drying for Mabonde. Conclusion: The result of this study could be used as a standard for oven drying of Luvhele and Mabonde banana varieties.
Ali Nizamuddin earned his PhD in Political Science from Columbia University. His area of specialization is international relations with a focus in Asian studies. Nizamuddin’s research interests include international trade, globalization, and the role of multinational corporations in the developing world. He recently published his second book on Multi-National Corporations entitled “The Patenting of Life, Limiting Liberty and the Corporate Pursuit of Seeds” on the global dominance of the world’s food supply. His articles have been published in several journals including Journal of Pacific Affairs, Asian Journal of Social Science, International Social Science Review and The Encyclopedia of International Political Economy.
Throughout world history, what human beings ate was determined by what local producers cultivated, and what they planted was determined by seasonal cycles. Some seeds that could withstand harsh weather were planted in the fall while most seeds were planted in the spring. After the harvest, farmers reclaimed the seeds so that they could replant them the following season. Today, however, these age-old practices that guided countless generations are becoming extinct. What we eat, the quality of our food, and even the tastes that we develop are dictated by powerful corporations who are driven by the profit motive. My book entitled The Patenting of Life, Limiting Liberty and the Corporate Pursuit of Seeds investigates the corporate dominance of the world’s seed supply. The seed is nature’s gift and the first link in the food chain. This life form is becoming the exclusive intellectual property of the corporation. The advent of genetically modified seeds and strict patent protection accorded to them enable companies to own the seed even after the farmer has bought, planted, and harvested the seed. Multinational corporations have a monopoly control over seeds and the accompanying pesticides which are leading to monocultures in the food system and the disappearance of traditional methods of farming. Local producers are forced to buy seeds each year, thereby fostering a feudalistic relationship of perpetual dependence. An imbalance of power has emerged and farmers are transformed from producers to consumers by these new arrangements. The leap to embrace biotechnology and genetically modified foods has been quite swift and conducted without the public’s knowledge. The food that our stomachs ingest may be increasingly bad for us. Case studies from four developing countries are presented for consideration.
Ahmadreza Baki-Jafarzadeh earned his undergraduate Bachelor of Science in Nursing with High Distinction from the University of Tehran, Iran. He is actively involved in Oncology and research and has served as an RN in different countries over 14 years. He has more than 23 years of professional experience including critical care nursing, staff development, clinical instruction, diabetes education and oncology nursing. He was awarded the 2013 Gerlard Kirsh Humanitarian Award at Princess Margaret Hospital where he has worked for the last ten years. He continues to be active in assisting student nurses at Tehran University of Medical Science and Health Care in Iran.
Currently, about 8%–18% of all cancer patients have pre-existing diabetes. Patients with diabetes and cancer receiving chemotherapy have an increased risk for developing glycemic issues. The relationship between chemotherapy and glycemic control is not completely understood. There is little data to describe the experience of diabetic patients during chemotherapy. Hyperglycemia in cancer patients has been linked to the risk of developing a non-hematological clinical toxicity while being treated with chemotherapy. Many chemotherapy agents have been linked to the development of hyperglycemia in patients without diabetes. Also, several studies have also demonstrated that patients with diabetes and cancer have a poorer prognosis compared with those without diabetes. According to results of developing an infection and/or being hospitalized during treatment, and the increased risk of having a chemotherapy reduction or stoppage. In other observational, hypothesis generating study, patients who have breast cancer and diabetes are at increased risk of chemotherapy-related toxicities compared with non-diabetic patients who are receiving chemotherapy and have higher all-cause mortality. However, some believe that we may use some chemotherapy drugs in the diabetic patients with less adverse effects. For example, in the one cohort study, data suggest that concurrent use of metformin with adjuvant chemotherapy does not significantly impact survival outcomes in diabetic patients with triple receptornegative breast cancer (TNBC); however, patients who do not take metformin and non-diabetic patients tend to have a higher risk of developing distant metastases.
Marco Songini is the Director Center for the Treatment of Complications of Diabetes at San Michele Hospital Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy. Doctor Marco Songini has published over 161 papers on the subject of atherosclerosis and epidemiology of Diabetes. He is a recognized expert in the etiopathology and epidemiology of type 1 diabetes and diabetes in general. After obtaining a degree in Medicine from the University of Cagliari in 1977, he obtained his specialization in Diabetology, University of Turin (1980), his specialization in Endocrinology, University of Rome (1984) and specialization in Dietology, University of Cagliari (1988). Dr. Songini has always been dedicated to the research of the etiopathogenic causes of diabetes. About this, he has contributed to the research in several studies on diabetes such as EURODIAB, EURODIAB PCS, TRIGR, Conscript, Studies, Migrant Studies, The Newborns Sardinia Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Study, The Sardinia Schoolchildren Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Study, Environmental Factor Study and the Ecological/Environmental/Veterinarian Variables Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Study.
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by increased blood glucose (hyperglycemia) due to total or partial deficiency of insulin (a hormone produced by the pancreas) or its malfunction. Classification of diabetes has been changed over time, in the past simply type 1 and type 2, but now we discuss how to redefine all criteria. Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes is still in progress. Genetics, Epigenetics, Environmental factors do not only influence the incidence of type 1 diabetes, but also type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is especially fearsome for long-term chronic complications such as chronic hyperglycemia and for damage and dysfunction and failure of various organs: heart, arteries, kidneys, eyes, Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (SNP). In regards to complications of the CNS, many studies have now found a relationship between both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and brain dysfunction and dementia. In type 2 diabetes, they can be decreased or increased levels of insulin in the brain, along with the insulin receptor desensitization. Long before antipsychotic drugs became standard therapy, studies showed abnormal glucose tolerance in patients with early dementia. Repeated hyper- and/or hypoglycemia or basal blood glucose values barely over the norme (hyper), without arriving to the diagnostic values for diabetes (IFG), have been linked to cognitive deficits and altered brain anatomy and connectivity. In diabetic patients, however, a clear correlation of glycemia with the memory deficit has been found. It was also observed that patients with diabetes who develop dementia have a unique form of the disease, although similar to vascular dementia. Glucose and insulin are therefore important moderators of cognitive function. ls Alzheimer's a Form of Diabetes? Now, scientists report new evidence linking insulin to a disorder of the brain, the correlation is so strong that some researchers are calling Alzheimer's disease Type 3 Diabetes. Some symptoms of 'senile' Dementia may be defeated by a specific insulin spray administered intranasally. New oral therapies, a combination of antidiabetic drugs such as liraglutide and glitazones, are now being tested in dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Finally, Alzheimer's disease and diabetes are united at the epidemiological, genetic and molecular levels. Both diseases supposedly would begin years before the start of their clinical symptoms. The chronic insulin resistance appears to negatively affect cognition and increase the risk of dementia. Insulin has important, recently recognized effects on the brain. It has indeed a beneficial and protective role in cognitive function. These chronic conditions are susceptible to 'targeted' intervention with 'antidiabetic' drugs as well as good control of the disease with an appropriate lifestyle. Intranasal insulin and/or incretins may represent an important therapeutic tool for preventing or treating cognitive decline. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm the results found and help the effective prevention of brain diabetes.
Christopher Bryant, Professor of University of Montreal & University_of_Guelph, Canada with 50 years of research experience in peri-urban agriculture (France, Canada and other countries) and 26 years research experience in adaptation of agriculture to climate change and variability as well as 30 years’ experience in community development. He was a Professor in Geography, University of Waterloo for 20 years and Professor in Geography, University of Montreal for 24 years. He is also an Adjunct Professor in the School of Environmental Design and Rural Development at the University of Guelph, Canada.
This workshop will focus on the conditions for successful projects. A conceptual framework will first be presented to act as a guide to the discussions and some examples of successful projects will be presented. These conditions include the roles of government (or not), the contributions of farmers and consumers, the roles of citizens, the roles of different networks (including Alternative Food Networks (AFN)), alternative markets, alternative ways of renting or accessing farmland and buildings, and alternative technologies including agro-ecological technologies. The workshop will then focus on other examples of peri-urban territories where there are projects being put in place and others where such projects could be put in place and the participants will discuss the conditions for success and how to ensure that these projects turn out to be successful. The examples discussed include the Food Land Belt around Liège in Belgium (successful) and the similar project around Charleroi also in Belgium (not particularly successful) and the Montreal Food System (Système Alimentaire Montrélais (SAM) (successful)). Participants will also discuss and share their perspectives on the evolving Food Land Belts around cities that some of the participants know. Discussions will be organized in discussion groups.
Maryam Babaei Khomeini has completed the Postgraduate degree in nursing at the age of 30 years from Azad University of Iran. She is working as Educational Supervisor of Nursing Department in the, Nursing Office, EmamReza Psychiatric Hospital of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabd, Iran. She has more than 18 years of experiences.
Hope is defined as a cognitive process through which individuals pursue their goals. Hope is one of important factors in quality of life in diabetic patients. Because of chronic status of diabetes disease, it is clear that the level of hope may be variable among the patients who suffer from diabetes. If the level of hope increases among them, they may provide some adaptation mechanism to control some physical and psychological complications of diabetes, therefore, the quality of life may increase. The aim of this study was to define the efficacy of hope therapy on quality of life. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted on 40 diabetic patients referring to one of Iranian diabetic center in Tehran. The subjects were selected based on the goals and inclusion criteria of the study and then were randomly assigned to study and control groups. Herth Hope Index (HHI) was completed by both groups before, after, and 1 month after intervention. Also, Farsi version of HRQoL questionnaire used to measure the quality of life. In the study group, 120-min sessions of hope therapy were held twice a week for 4 weeks. According to data analysis, results showed that hope therapy increased the level of hope in diabetic patients in experimental group in comparison to control group. Also, the scale of the HRQoL significantly increased in the experimental group (P< 0.001). In Iranian patient, Hope therapy may increase the quality of life of diabetic patient via increase of the level of Hope, therefore, the Hope therapy may suggest for diabetic patients.
Prof. Mahmoud Rafieian-kopaei is Head of Medical Plants Research Cente. He is from Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran. He has published more than 500 papers and 7 Books
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic hyperglycemic disorder with disturbance in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism resulting from deficiency in insulin secretion and/or insulin action. Medicinal plants and herbal medicines such as Berberis vulgaris have long been used for centuries in the treatment and prevention of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, however, their effects have not yet been proven by valid research. Hence, in this study other than measuring minerals in B. vulgaris, we aimed to evaluate its ethanolic extract effects on glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly designated to five equal groups of 12 each. Diabetes was induced in animals, by intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate. Healthy and diabetic controls received distilled water, positive diabetic controls received metformin, experimental diabetic animals (groups 4 and 5) received Berberis vulgaris extract the doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg, daily for 30 days. Blood samples were collected from the animals’ heart and their glucose and lipid profiles were measured with autoanalyzer and HPLC. The results indicated that iron level in Berberis vulgaris fruit was considerably high. In diabetic rats administration of B. vulgaris fruit extract in 800 mg/kg dose decreased glucose and lipid profile significantly (p<0.05). The present investigation showed that the Berberis vulgaris fruit extract alleviates glucose and lipid profile level and might be used efficiently in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, especially in diabetic patients. It may also be beneficial in iron deficiency.
Preet Lakhani has completed MBBS from Pramukh Swami Medical College, Karamsad, Gujarat, INDIA and MD in Pharmacology and Therapeutics from King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, INDIA. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals.
Insulin degludec is supplied under trade name Tresiba, is an ultra long acting basal insulin which can be used by people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Tresiba is suitable for use in treating patients of ages 18 years and older with either type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. Tresiba is taken by subcutaneous injection once daily. One of the benefits of insulin degludec is that it offers much greater flexibility over when doses can be taken. The insulin lasts for up to 42 hours and that allows doses to be taken at different times of day, if needed, without impacting on blood glucose control. This means there is significantly more room varying times of doses to suit your lifestyle. Research studies used to investigate the effectiveness of the drug also showed that Tresiba reduced the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia, in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, in comparison with Lantus (insulin glargine). Trials also noted a reduction in overall hypoglycemia for Tresiba compared with Lantus within patients with type 2 diabetes. Tresiba may not be suitable for people that experience reactions to glycerol, metacresol, phenol or zinc acetate. Tresiba is different to most other insulin available in that it is available in two different strengths. Standard strength 100 units/mL Double strength 200 units/mL
Zahra Mokhtari is a PhD student of Nursing, Nursing Department, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, Iran, Member of Iranian Diabetes Association.
The phenomenon of diabetes as the bitterest disease in the world has many cultural backgrounds. Diabetic foot is the main cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations Diabetes and its complications are a major health Concern in Iran. The current study was conducted to identify barriers impeding the provision of support for Diabetic patients with Lower limb amputation in Iran. This qualitative study was conducted on 16 Diabetic patients with Lower limb amputation, 3 nurses, two doctors and three of their family caregivers by conventional content analysis methodology. The subjects were selected through purposive sampling method, and data were collected using in-depth and semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed using the methods as described by Graneheim and Lundman. The research context included the general and specialized departments of the hospitals of Tehran, Iran, during 2017. The ethical principles of voluntariness, confidentiality, and anonymity were considered. According to the results, Five main categories with 13 subcategories of 410 primary codes were extracted: Inefficient supportive patterns (such as Inefficient Supportive Patterns of Health Systems and Inefficient Supportive Patterns of families); Iranian lifestyle (such as Nutrition styles); burden of culture of diabetes (such as Stigma attached to identity); Defect in seeking support (such as Lack of motivation); Damaging Attitudes (such as damaging medicines). In Conclusion, a framework of organizational, family and personal cultural interventions are needed to improve Supportive Cultural Network in Iran. In addition, diabetes health managers should pay attention to the cultural background when they develop programs.
Raheleh Sabet Sarvestani has completed his PhD at the age of 31 years from Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Singapore. She is working as a faculty member in Fasa University of Medical Sciences. She has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.