Food science comprises the study of the physical, biological, and chemical makeup of food; the causes of food deterioration; and the concepts underlying food processing. Food technology is the application of food science to the selection, preservation, processing, packaging, distribution, and use of safe food. Food technology is applicable to food processing industries, research laboratories, hotels, soft drink factories, quality control, rice mills, manufacturing industries and distilleries. Food technology includes the selection, preservation, processing, packaging, distribution, and use of safe food by applying principles of chemistry, biotechnology, engineering, nutrition, quality control, and food safety management.
Food processing is mainly done to increase shelf life of the food and to meet the increasing demands of the consumers. Processing includes different treatment and techniques, in mean time the widespread introduction of electricity revolutionised the food industry prompting it to manufacture new food processing machines. A change has been taking place in the beverage sector in recent years and consumers no longer consider beverages as thirst quenchers, but rather as health products that have a content of specific ingredients which form part of their lifestyle. This session provides intriguing thoughts about the progressed research in the field of beverages and the technology which could be implemented to develop functional drinks with good taste, texture and flavour as per the consumer preference.
Food quality confirms all the safety, nutritional quality and acceptability of the delivered foods as well as food acceptability by customers. Food safety refers to handling, preparing and storing food in an exceedingly way to best scale back the chance of individuals becoming sick from foodborne diseases. Food safety is a global concern that covers a variety of various areas of everyday life. The principles of food safety aim to forestall food from becoming contaminated and causing food poisoning. Food preservation helps in treating and handling food in such a way as to stop, control, or greatly slow down spoilage and, of course, to minimize the possibility of foodborne illness while maintaining the optimum nutritional value, texture, and flavor. Deterioration of foods will result in loss of quality attributes, including flavor, texture, color, and other sensory properties. Nutritional quality is also affected during food deterioration.
The agri-food sector helps in the food production and distribution, and includes a vast range of roles from farming to the point of eating. Agriculture companies, food manufacturers, producers and retailers are large employers in this sector, as are government departments that develop food policy. The agri-food sector is also intrinsically linked to globally important challenges such as land and water use, climate change, and health and well-being.
Food microbiology is to discuss all the microbial aspects of food spoilage and quality. During harvesting, food processing and downstream operations food may become contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. The primary factors associated with food spoilage are associated with intrinsic food properties which include endogenous enzymes, substrates, sensitivity for light, oxygen and cross contamination during harvesting, slaughter and processing in combination with temperature abuse. Food microbiology includes the following aspects:
- Spoilage and HACCP
- Quantitative detection and identification methods for microbial spoilage
- Detection, identification and enumeration methods for spoilage yeasts
- Detection, identification and enumeration methods for spoilage molds
- Modelling microbial food spoilage
- Determining the stability and self-life of foods
- Managing microbial food spoilage
Food toxicology studies the harmful effects of chemical, biological and physical agents in biological systems that establish the extent of damage in living organisms. It deals with toxic substances in food either of natural origin or formed after food spoilage or general practices to be avoided to save the nutrition.
- Toxin food additives
- Pesticide residues in foods
- Toxic food contaminants from industrial wastes
- Fungal toxins occurring in foods
- Natural toxins in plant food stuffs
Sports nutrition has conventional significant courtesy over the past few decades. Certainly, nutrition guidance nearly every process in the body tangled in energy production and retrieval from exercise. A very stimulating subject of sports nutrition is the use of supplements like proteins and metabolism of lipids and their effects on human recital and health minerals and trace elements play a vital role in body construction.
- Nutrition and metabolism of lipid
- Sports injuries
- Minerals and trace elements
- The science of eating for exercise
- Food and nutrition: policy and regulatory issues
- Healthcare nutrition for athletes
- Weight Loss aids
- Exercise, nutrition and health
- Sports specific nutrition
Novel food packaging technologies are developed to protect fresh and mildly-processed food against spoilage factors including microbiological, oxidation, moisture changes, and aromatic related factors. Novel food packaging technologies arose as results of consumer’s need for convenient, ready to eat, tasty and mild processed food products with extended shelf life and maintained quality. The novel food packaging technologies besides the basic function of containment increase the margin of food quality and safety. The novel food packaging techniques thus facilitate in fulfilling the demands throughout the food supply chain by gearing up toward persons own lifestyle.
The application of probiotics in farm product is common. However, the food trade is seeking to provide completely different forms of probiotic foods apart from farm product with potential health advantages. Microencapsulation technologies have provided the required protection for probiotics and affected them outside the pharmaceutical and supplemental use to become food ingredients. Microencapsulation technology has the potential to take care of the viability of probiotic bacterium throughout foodstuff process and storage.
The body needs various vitamins and minerals that are crucial for body’s development and for preventing diseases. A nutritional deficiency occurs when the body doesn’t absorb or get from food the required amount of a nutrient. Deficiencies cause a range of health issues. Nutrition disorders particularly affect children, because they interfere with growth and development, and cause serious health issues, like infection and chronic disease. Food forms an important part of the lifestyle and can act as a lifestyle medicine, if taken in the right proportions with high nutritional value and by understanding the medicinal value of food.
The science that deals with wine and wine making is called as oenology. The wine and food combine to create a totally new and superior gastronomic effect. Wine industry is ever growing and forms an important part of the beverage industry. Latest research and industrial growth in the field provides a better scope for discussion in the conference.
Intellectual property protection in the food sector covers everything from the production of ingredients and creation of recipes to the labelling, marketing and branding of the finished product. Types of intellectual property relevant to the food industry include patents, trademarks & copyright, trade secrets and design rights. Every food sector business from start up to multinational creates intellectual property. These assets can be extremely valuable, particularly when a company becomes successful. If any form of intellectual property is not protected at the beginning, its value can be lost, stolen or diminished.
- IPR impact on food
- IPR Law in the food sector
- Patents, Designs and Trademarks
Challenges in the 21st century in regards to food safety & security, food fraud, waste reduction and sustainability, analytical techniques, novel technologies, functional foods, nutrition and health and gastronomy etc., need to addressed. Food waste management is the growing problem in our modern society. Food-scrap recycling has multiple benefits. Food scraps can be used for composting, which enriches soil and reduces emissions of methane (a potent greenhouse gas) from landfills. It also significantly reduces the volume of landfill needed in a given area and recycling food can save cities and towns economy by lowering the needed frequency of trash collection.
Food can be a basic vehicle for transmission of extensive variety of diseases. The transmission of human sicknesses through food, water and waste water is a worldwide issue. Creating awareness of health hazards arising from the consumption of contaminated food has grown in recent years and has resulted in national and worldwide strengthening of food cleanliness programs. The highest percentage of contamination was mainly found in raw foods, raw meats and dry foods. Once food is subjected to the attack of microorganisms the microbial population increases within a few hours at normal temperature, because food is an ideal culture medium for multiplication of a variety of microorganisms.
The demand is driven in the area of sweeteners, fats, food oils, eating meat, since soybean meal is used primarily to feed poultry, swine and cattle. Oils used for salad dressing as well as those used for cooking uses such as deep fat frying and pan frying are all called edible oils. The global edible oil industry is highly concentrated where the eight largest companies account for over 80% of the total industry's revenue. In the edible oil industry, the major products include: soybean cake and meal, shortening and cooking oils, corn sweeteners. Other products include margarine, butter blends, butter substitutes and soybean oil soybean oil, palm oil, peanut oil, cottonseed oil and other edible oils.
The dairy industries are experiencing the tremendous growth and are increasing their production on a large scale. The top 10 countries in milk production are India, USA, China, Pakistan, Brazil, Germany, Russia, France, New Zealand and Turkey. Diary food technology may include the following areas:
- Fermented and fat rich products
- Dairy equipment design
- Dairy biotechnology
- Shelf-life extension of products
- Advancement and growth of dairy industries
Food engineering is a multi-facet area of applied physics which combines science, microbiology, and engineering knowledge for food and related industries. It is also supported by the principles of agricultural engineering, mechanical engineering and chemical engineering. Apart from these, physics, chemistry, and mathematics are the three pillars to understanding and engineering food products and operations in the food industry. Food engineers make available the technological information essential for the production and commercialization of food products and services in a cost effective manner. Food engineers are involved in a wide range of activities, starting from food ingredient, processing, instrumentation, packaging, manufacturing, to the quality control process.
- Engineering properties of food materials
- Rheological properties of food
- Genetic engineering: The future of foods
- Food-production systems for space, army and navy
- Robotics potential in food production
- Advancement of fermentation technology in food industry
Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging and the sensing and signalling of relevant information.