Tarbiat Modares University, Iran
Davood Fathi received the B.Sc. degree in the field of electronic engineering from Amir Kabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, in 1990, and the M.Sc. degree in the field of biomedical (bioelectronic) engineering from Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, in 1994. After a couple of years working in the industry, he worked toward a Ph.D. degree between 2006-2009 in the field of nanotechnology (nanoelectronics) with the Nanoelectronics Center of Excellence, Thin Film and Photonics Research Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Energy and the environment are two key issues in modern society which are necessities for the economic and social sustainable development of the world. In 2018, there is a 79.5% energy economy that relies on conventional energy sources such as coal, petroleum oil, and natural gas, which are not renewable and environmentally benign. So far, fossil fuels account for about 87% of global energy. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, economic growth has been driven by a continuous increase in power consumption, which has been possible thanks to the availability, high energy density, and low price of fossil fuels. Currently, the global demand for energy is growing faster than the capacity and utilization of fossil fuels, which leads to energy shortages. To deal with this problem, there has been a global drive to seek renewable and clean alternatives to fossil fuels. Moreover, world energy demand due to population growth, Industrial development and Excessive use of modern electrical devices is constantly increasing. Therefore, finding reliable, cost-effective, and renewable energy sources is needed for the future. Solar energy, as the cleanest and the largest exploitable resource of energy, can potentially meet the growing requirements for the whole world's energy needs beyond fossil fuels. Consequently, today, the development of renewable and clean energy sources has received global attention as an alternative. Solar cells or photovoltaic cells are electrical devices that convert light energy directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. It is a physical and chemical phenomenon. These types of cells have electrical properties such as current, voltage, or resistance that change when exposed to light. Among various combinations of solar cells, Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have emerged as one of the best in the photovoltaic industry in recent years. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) plays an important role in generating electricity from solar power. PSCs are one of the most important types of solar cells that can be used to produce cheaper solar energy.