Fungal biofilms are a growing clinical problem related to significant rates of mortality. Candida albicans is the most notorious of all fungal biofilm formers. However, Non-Candida species, yeasts such as Cryptococcus neoformans, and filamentous moulds such as Aspergillus fumigatus, have been shown to be implicated in biofilm-associated infections. Fungal biofilms have distinct developmental phases, including adhesion, colonization, maturation and dispersal, which are governed by complex molecular events. Recalcitrance to antifungal therapy remains the greatest threat to patients with fungal biofilms. This analysis is to discuss our current understanding of the basic biology and clinical implications associated with fungal biofilms.
Pathogenic fungi cause disease in humans and in other organisms, which is called as fungal pathogenesis. This is particularly true of fungal pathogenesis that there is no single factor that causes or permits these organisms to be agents of diseases that range from superficial to invasive diseases in the plant, animal, and human. A small number of fungi have the ability to cause infections in normal healthy humans by
(1) having a unique enzymatic capacity.
(2) exhibiting thermal dimorphism and
(3) by having an ability to block the cell-mediated immune defences of the host. There are then many "opportunistic" fungi which cause infections almost exclusively in debilitated patients whose normal defense mechanisms are impaired. More recently described mycoses of this category include hyalohyphomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis.
An antifungal medication is a pharmaceutical fungicide or fungi static used to treat and prevent mycoses, which are most commonly found on the skin, hair and nails. It works by exploiting differences between mammalian and fungal cells to kill the fungal organism with fewer adverse effects to the host. Antifungal medicines are used in several ways, depending on your specific fungal infection.
Medical mycology is the investigation of contagious contaminations. In insusceptible traded off hosts, fundamental contagious contaminations are typically observed. Fundamental contagious contaminations prompt pneumonic diseases. Parasitic contaminations are typically observed on skin, nails, and hair. Regular parasitic diseases are intertrigo, thrush, and pityriasis versicolor, competitor's foot, nail contaminations, ringworm of the body, ringworm of the groin.
Fungi are eukaryotic organisms which cannot produce their own energy and depend on enzymatic processes for metabolic activity to absorb nutrition. Its kingdom encompasses tremendous biological diversity, with members covering a wide range of lifestyles, forms, habitats, and sizes. Advances in molecular techniques have formed the base for a boost in studies concerning fungal diversity, and the fast development of next generation sequencing technologies promises further progress towards a more thorough understanding of fungal diversity and function. The current limited knowledge of fungal diversity and biology complicates an assessment of the conservation status of fungal species and has hindered the development of conservation tools and efforts.
Edible mushrooms are the fleshy fruit bodies of several species of macro-fungi. They can appear either below ground or above ground where they may be picked by hand. Edibility may be defined by criteria that include the absence of poisonous effects on humans and desirable taste and aroma. Mushrooms play extremely important roles in the ecosystem, and some are famously delicious. Some are also famously deadly. In recent years has focused on various immunological and anti-cancer properties of certain mushrooms, they also offer other potentially important health benefits, including antioxidants, anti-hypertensive and cholesterol-lowering properties, liver protection, as well as anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-viral and anti-microbial properties. These properties have attracted the interest of many pharmaceutical companies, which are viewing the medicinal mushroom as a rich source of innovative biomedical molecules. Mushrooms contain disease-busting polysaccharides, glycoproteins, ergosterols, triterpenoids, and immune-boosting chemicals. They can also be used to bolster a declining immune system during aging.
Bacterial and fungal interactions can form a range of physical associations that depend on various modes of molecular communication for their development and functioning. Consequences of bacterial-fungal interactions have profound consequences for both organisms and changes in the bacterial and fungal partners physiology, life cycles, and survival. Applications of BIFs found in various biological fields i.e. Food processing, fermentation and brewing, cheese ripening, bioremediation of pollutants, natural product discovery and synthetic biology. Mixed bacterial-fungal communities play a key role in determining the taste, quality, and safety of a wide range of foods, like wine production, cheese manufacture involves complex microbial ecosystems where BIFs play a central role.
Mycotoxins are the secondary metabolites that are produced by filamentous fungi. It is capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. Because of their pharmacological activity, some mycotoxins or mycotoxin derivatives have found use as antibiotics, growth promotants, and other kinds of drugs; still, others have been implicated as chemical warfare agents. The term mycotoxin is an artificial rubric used to describe pharmacologically active mold metabolites characterized by vertebrate toxicity. Mycotoxins generally enter the body via ingestion of contaminated foods, but inhalation of toxigenic spores and direct dermal contact are also important routes.
The presence of fungi in food has been both advantage and problems to food stores. Fungi can spoil large quantities of food and produce dangerous toxins that threaten human health; however, fungal spoilage in certain foods can produce a unique, highly prized food source and there are some very effective fungal derived medicines. A thorough understanding of the vast body of knowledge relating to food mycology requires an inclusive volume that covers both the beneficial and detrimental roles of fungi in our food supply. These include food groups such as bakery products, dairy products, beverages (e.g. fruit juices), dried fruits and nuts, and confectionary. Fungi can also present health risks by the production of specific toxic agents called mycotoxins, which are often poorly understood, but are being increasingly recognised as agents of both acute and chronic toxicity in humans and animals. This creates an opportunity in research towards the fungi and yeasts, and the problems they can cause in foods, in terms of spoilage and health effects. It will present a balanced view of the importance of these agents in the context of the modern food industry.