Nanophotonics & plasmonics focuses on light at the nanometre-scale. Light can only be focused to a spot roughly half its wavelength in size (a few hundred nanometres for visible light). This limit can be surpassed by coupling light to electrons at the surface of a metal and creating surface plasmons. This area of nanoscience, called nanophotonics, is defined as “The science and engineering of light matter interactions that takeplace on wavelength and sub wavelength scales where the physical, chemical or structural nature of natural or artificial nanostructured matter controls the interactions”.
Essentially, Nanophotonics has emerged as an integration of three advanced aspects of science: nanotechnology, photonics, and optoelectronics. By adding the dimensions of optical devices and components to sub-wavelength scale, nanophotonics provides new opportunities for fundamental science and practical applications. One of the goals of nanophotonics development is to manipulate light at the nanoscale, which may not be limited by the chemical composition of natural materials and the diffraction limit of electromagnetic wave. Nanophotonics has several advantages with such diffraction-unlimited properties for functional applications: (i) Nanoscale footprints-smaller components and devices; (ii) photon-electron process in nanoscale—faster processing speed, and (iii) Nanoscale confinement of optical radiation and electromagnetic fields—enhancing the light-matter interactions and dramatically reducing the optical energy consumption. The characterization of drastic optical localization within such components strongly enhances the typically weak interaction between light and matter, which increases the energy efficiency to obtain desired effects and phenomena.
Intense plasmonic hotspots associated with carefully designed Nano architectures dramatically enhance sensing capabilities, allowing us to observe individual molecules and follow chemical reactions in real time. (i) Chemical reactions at the nanoscale: Incorporating nanosized reactors allows exact control and selectivity of reactants. Using cucurbituril molecules as both reaction vessels and spacers between gold nanoparticles ensures that the reaction happens exactly in the plasmonic hotspot (ii) Plasmonic molecular sensing: Using the immense enhancement created by plasmonic structures combined with carefully tailored molecular scaffolding, incredibly sensitive SERS sensors can be formed that allow the observation of diffusion of single molecules through lipid bilayers, (iii) Tuneable ultrafast SERS: We developed a new broadband spectrally tuneable system for spectrally-resolved SERS. By scanning the excitation wavelength across the whole visible spectrum, we can investigate the near- and far-field optical response of individual plasmonic nanostructures in detail.
Electronics is now part of our everyday life, from the mobile phones to televisions, computers and even the high-end advanced satellites that are helping us to lead a smooth life. Ever since the evolution of technology, Electronics and Communication has become an essential discipline which is required by all the industries. Hence, Electronics and Communication engineering is one of the most sought after branches by students. Electronics and Communication Engineering has also penetrated into other areas like healthcare, instrumentation, automation, remote sensing, signal processing etc.
Biophotonics is a scientific discipline of remarkable societal importance. For hundreds of years, researchers have utilized light-based systems to explore the biological basics of life. It became an essential tool in the life sciences and medicine and had a crucial influence on the work of biologists of this time, such as Ernst Haeckel. Since then, its importance has grown even stronger. Today, ultrahigh resolving microscopes enable us to observe cellular structures smaller than 20 nm across and their functions, and thus to study diseases right at their origin. We also benefit greatly from photonic technologies in medical practice – in fact both in diagnosis and in therapy of diseases. For example, laser scalpels have become routine tools which reduce the expense of many surgeries ,sometimes even down to an ambulant intervention (keyhole surgery). Due to novel photonic technologies such as fluorescence endoscopy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), some types of cancer can be recognized much earlier and treated more gently than several years before.
Biophotonics is the science of producing and utilizing photons or light to image, identify, and engineer biological materials. It is the integration of four major technologies: biotechnology, lasers, photonics, and nanotechnology. Biomedical applications of biophotonics include light interactions in medicine and biology for the purposes of health care. (i) Diagnostic biophotonics: By using optics, diagnostic biophotonics provides several advantages of sensing and imaging at the molecular level and also collects multidimensional data for evaluation. Technologies based on light are generally contact-free with less effect on integrity of living subjects and, consequently, can easily be applied in situ, Optical tagging-Visualization of complex structures-Cellular level diagnosis-Optical endoscopes. (ii) Therapeutic biophotonics: Applications of light include treatment of diseases by altering biological processes. Light is used for modifying the cellular functions photochemically and to remove tissues by photomechanical or photothermal process.
Optics and photonics covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from high-energy gamma rays and X-rays, through the optical regime of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light, to long-wavelength microwave and radio waves. Electrical Engineering is spread across a range of specialties such as acoustics, speech, signal processing to electromagnetic compatibility, automobiles to vehicular technology, geo-science and remote sensing, laser and electro-optics, robotics, ultra-sonic, ferroelectrics and frequency control.
Technologies for fabricating, observing, and measuring nanoscale systems have been making a rapid progress in recent years. Understanding of material properties from their nanoscale physics/chemistry is essential for future scientific and technological breakthroughs. In nanoscale regions, physics, chemistry, and materials science are no longer independent disciplines; instead, interaction of these fields is becoming indispensable for creating new research directions. The objective of this center is to pursue such interdisciplinary research through collaboration of the member research groups and create a new paradigm in science and engineering.
Microelectronics, photonics, and nanotechnology (MPN) constitute a research area that has the potential to address many of the grand challenges currently facing society, including improving healthcare by engineering better diagnostic tools, securing the homeland by creating better chemical and gas sensors, and reducing the cost of renewable energy sources by increasing the efficiency of solar energy conversion. Materials, devices, and integrated systems are the foundation to creating the enabling technologies that can address these important, multi-disciplinary challenges. Quantum mechanical properties of light and matter for applications including secure communications, quantum and classical computing, and sensing. Nanophotonics and nanoscience play crucial roles in building a platform for quantum technologies.
Electronic Systems Engineering focuses on the integration of electronics, computers, and communication technologies. Electronic communications engineers conceptualize, design, test and oversee the manufacturing of communications and broadcast systems. They mainly work to integrate electronics and communications into any system they develop. A signal is an electric current or electromagnetic field used to convey data from one place to another. More complex signals consist of an alternating-current (AC) or electromagnetic carrier that contains one or more data streams.