Nephrology and hypertension involves the diagnosis and the treatment of all kinds of diseases that are related to the kidney. This field of medical science contains everything starting from the outpatient care to the kidney transplantation and at the same time management of hypertension or high blood pressure. There are several patients across the globe who suffers from kidney diseases and infection of the urinary tract that is caused due to hypertension, diabetes, drugs and cancer etc. Several of these patients have chances of kidney failure and require kidney transplantation or dialysis. All these treatments are covered under the scope of nephrology.
The kidneys have always been an object of mystery and study from time immemorial. Every year, the population prevalence of chronic kidney disease exceeds 10%, and is more than 50% in high-risk subpopulations. Thus it considers the clinical nephrology where Clinical Nephrology is a specialty of medicine that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy including dialysis and kidney transplantation.
Kidney problems can develop suddenly (acute) or over the long term (chronic). Many conditions, diseases, and medicines can create situations that lead to acute and chronic kidney problems. Acute kidney injury, which used to be called acute renal failure, is more commonly reversible than chronic kidney failure.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is usually caused by an event that leads to kidney malfunction, such as dehydration, blood loss from major surgery or injury, or the use of medicines. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is usually caused by a long-term disease, such as high blood pressure or diabetes, that slowly damages the kidneys and reduces their function over time.
Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage kidney disease. Kidney transplantation is typically classified as deceased-donor (formerly known as cadaveric) or living-donor transplantation depending on the source of the donor organ. Living-donor kidney transplants are further characterized as genetically related (living-related) or non-related (living-unrelated) transplants, depending on whether a biological relationship exists between the donor and recipient.
In medicine, dialysis is the process of removing excess water, solutes, and toxins from the blood in people whose kidneys can no longer perform these functions naturally. This is referred to as renal replacement therapy. The 2 types of dialysis are hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.
In hemodialysis, your bloodstream is joined to a kidney machine outside the body. Hemodialysis is most often done 3 times per week and each session takes about 4 hours. Peritoneal dialysis is done through a tube in the belly. Dialysis will not cure kidney failure. But dialysis can replace the work of the kidneys, and help you feel better and live longer.
Nephrology is the scientific study of the kidneys, particularly their functions and diseases, and a nephrologist is a physician who specializes in the kidneys. The kidneys remove waste from the body (via urine), filter toxins from the blood and help regulate the concentration of certain elements in the blood. Children whose kidneys have become seriously impaired require immediate and specialized medical care. Pediatric Nephrology Services offers comprehensive testing and evaluation of the kidneys to definitively diagnosis any problems, as well as to determine the cause. Pediatric Nephrology Services also provides prenatal evaluation and counselling for families whose unborn children are identified with kidney disease.
The kidneys are fist-size organs that handle the body's fluid and chemical levels. Most people have two kidneys, one on each side of the spine behind the liver, stomach, pancreas and intestines. Healthy kidneys clean waste from the blood and remove it in the urine. When your kidneys are healthy, they properly control the levels of sodium, potassium and calcium in the blood. The kidneys, ureters and bladder are part of your urinary tract. The urinary tract makes, moves, and stores urine in the body. The kidneys make urine from water and your body's waste. The urine then travels down the ureters into the bladder, where it is stored. Urine leaves your body through your urethra. Kidney stones form in the kidney. If a stone leaves the kidney and gets stuck in the ureter, it is called a ureteral stone.
Reflux nephropathy is kidney damage (nephropathy) due to urine flowing backward (reflux) from the bladder toward the kidneys; the latter is called vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Longstanding VUR can result in small and scarred kidneys during the first five years of life in affected children. The end results of reflux nephropathy can include high blood pressure, excessive protein loss in the urine, and eventually kidney failure. When reflux nephropathy is suspected as a cause of kidney disease, other conditions to consider include chronic pyelonephritis, obstructive uropathy, and analgesic overuse.
Kidney cancer is also called renal cancer which is a disease in which kidney cells become malignant (cancerous) and grow out of control, forming a tumor. Almost all kidney cancers first appear in the lining of tiny tubes (tubules) in the kidney. This type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. It most often begins in the lining of tiny tubes in the kidney (called "renal tubules"). The renal tubules clean your blood and make urine. Renal cell cancer often stays within the kidney, but it may spread to other parts of the body, most often the bones, lungs, or brain.
Diabetes is associated with markedly increased cardiovascular risk, a risk compounded with imposition of chronic kidney disease (CKD). More than 80% of people with diabetes and CKD have hypertension, and many have an obliterated nocturnal blood pressure “dip,” the normal physiological drop in blood pressure during sleep. Appropriate blood pressure measurement is the Achilles heel of hypertension management, especially in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This review elaborates on the evidence regarding one of the most important therapeutic targets in DKD, namely, control of blood pressure to < 130/80 mmHg, and provides detailed information about appropriate blood pressure measurement and treatments to best achieve that target.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disorder in which endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodelling obstruct small pulmonary arteries, resulting in increased pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary pressures. This leads to reduced cardiac output, right heart failure, and ultimately death. Resistant hypertension is high blood pressure that does not respond well to aggressive medical treatment. Hypertension is considered resistant when all of the following are true: Someone is taking three different blood pressure medications at their maximally tolerated doses.
High blood pressure (BP) is a major public health problem in India and its prevalence is rapidly increasing among urban and rural populations. Reducing systolic and diastolic BP can decrease cardiovascular risk and this can be achieved by non-pharmacological (lifestyle measures) as well as pharmacological means. Lifestyle changes should be the initial approach to hypertension management and include dietary interventions (reducing salt, increasing potassium, alcohol avoidance, and multifactorial diet control), weight reduction, tobacco cessation, physical exercise, and stress management.
A case report is a method for conveying something new that has been learnt from clinical practice. It could be around a surprising or beforehand obscure condition, an uncommon presentation or difficulty of a known illness, or even another way to deal with dealing with a typical condition. A case report gives the point by point report of indications, signs, conclusion, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient. Case reports may contain a statistic profile of the patient and assume significant part in the field of restorative clinical research and prove based pharmaceutical. Besides, case reports will function an early cautioning signal for the antagonistic impacts of latest solutions, or the presentations of new and rising ailments.