Khin Bo is involved in NeuroRehabilitation over 20 years. He is also a Lecturer (Hon) in Hull and York Medical School teaching 4th Year Medical Students in CNS and Musculoskeletal Blocks. He is doing Botulinum Toxin injection in Spasticity, Dystonia and Involuntary Movement disorders over 15 years and done Poster presentations and Oral Presentations in International NeuroRehabilitation Conferences. He is also involved in using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) over 10 years and presented regularly in International FES Conferences. He is working on developing Hypertonic Hand Monitoring Scale and recently published another Bedside test (Finger Nose Proprioceptive Test).
Slobodan MarinkoviÄ‡ has completed his PhD at the age of 31 years from Belgrade University and Postdoctoral studies from Laboratories in Copenhagen (Denmark) and Washington (USA). He has published 2 international books, four chapters in 2 other books, 8 national books, more than 60 papers in reputed journals. He has about 1200 citations in the international publications. He has been a Chairman person on three occasions. He is the Professor of Anatomy at University of Belgrade, and a Visiting Professor at Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Japan.
Statement of the Problem: Some malformations appear only once per several years worldwide. The purpose of this study is to present two of those abnormalities. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Mulstislice CT and MRI were performed. Findings: A 21-year-old male patient was presented with pituitary duplication associated with the following malformations: bilateral duplication of the posterior clinoid processes; a very broad clivus; the third occipital condyle; an inverse foramen magnum; a median agenesis of the anterior and posterior atlas arches; duplication of the odontoid process; a median cleft of the axis body; a fusion of the C2-C4 vertebrae; and, hypoplasia of the vertebral arteries, early bifurcation of the basilar artery, hypoplasia of the P1 segment, and segmental dilatation of the A2 segment. The second patient, i.e. a 5-year-old girl, was presented with: C7 vertebra – agenesis of the left part of the body; T1 and T2 – an incomplete vertical cleft of the left pedicle; T3 – agenesis of the right arch; T4 – absence of the right pedicle, and a cleft of its arch; T5, T7 and T12 – agenesis of the right half of the body, hypoplasia of the right half, and defect of the left arch; T6 – a vertical cleft of the body, agenesis of its arch, and enlarged vertebral foramen; T8 – a defect of the left arch, and enlarged vertebral foramen; T10 and T11 – absence of the arches, and duplication of the vertebral foramen; T12 – duplication of the vertebral foramen; L1 – small defect of the right half of the body, arch agenesis, and duplication of the vertebral foramen; L3 – a mediosagittal cleft of its arch; L4 – agenesis of the left arch; from L5 to S3 – a complete absence of their arches. The spinal cord was duplicated at the level between the T6 and T10. Conclusion & Significance: These extremely rare malformations are very important from the embryologic and neurologic aspect.
Wai Kwong TANG is the Professor at the Department of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong since 2011. His main research areas are Addictions and Neuropsychiatry in Stroke. Professor Tang has published over 100 papers in renowned journals, and has also contributed to the peer review of 40 journals. He has secured over 20 major competitive research grants, including National Natural Science Foundation of China, General Research Fund and General Research Fund. He has served the Editorial boards of five scientific journals. He was also a recipient of the Young Researcher Award from the Chinese University of Hong Kong in 2007.
Many stroke survivors suffer from depression. Poststroke Depression (PSD) adversely affects on the recovery and rehabilitation of stroke survivors. The frequency of PSD remained high in both acute and chronic stroke patients. Possible structural correlates of PSD include cerebral microbleeds, lacunar infarcts, and white matter changes. Functional changes in several brain networks, such as the default mode network and the affective network have been reported in PSD. Latest findings on the link between structural and functional brain changes and PSD will be discussed. This project is supported by the following grants: Health and Medical Research Fund, reference number: 02130726; Health and Medical Research Fund, reference number: 01120376; National Natural Science Foundation of China, reference number: 81371460; General Research Fund, reference number: 474513; General Research Fund, reference number: 473712.
University of Belgrade, Serbia
University of Reading, UK
Kahdr Alatawi has completed his MSc at the University of Glasgow in Clinical Pharmacology. Currently, he is pursuing PhD degree at the University of Reading. His research interests are focused on platelet signaling and inflammatory responses.
Thrombosis is one of the major cardiovascular diseases that occur when the platelets become activated inappropriately within the circulation under pathological conditions. Currently, anti-platelet drugs such as aspirin and clopidogrel are used to treat these conditions. However, these drugs are associated with serious side effects, especially bleeding. Therefore, development of improved therapeutics to treat thrombotic diseases is an important strategy to combat cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigate the effects of 1,8 cineole in the modulation of platelet function, thrombosis and haemostasis.
Methods: To determine the modulatory effects of 1,8 cineole in platelet activation, aggregation assays were performed using platelet-rich plasma by optical aggregometry in the presence or absence of different concentrations (6.2, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 μM) of 1,8 cineole. Platelets were pre-treated with 1,8 cineole for 5 minutes prior to stimulation with various agonists such as CRP-XL, collagen, thrombin and ADP. Furthermore, the level of fibrinogen binding (as a marker for integrin aIIbb3) and P-selectin exposure (as a marker for a-granule secretion) on the platelet surface were measured by flow cytometry using human platelets.
Results: Our findings demonstrate the inhibitory activities of 1,8 cineole on human platelets. Indeed, 1,8 cineole affected platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner when activated by various agonists. Similarly, the level of fibrinogen binding and P-selectin exposure upon stimulation with CRP-XL was significantly inhibited by 1,8 cineole. These results suggest that 1, 8 cineole may have modulatory effects on platelet function and thereby thrombosis, and therefore this might be useful in controlling thrombotic diseases.
Sakthivel Vaiyapuri is a Lecturer in Pharmacology in the School of Pharmacy at the University of Reading, UK. He completed Bachelors in Biochemistry at Bharathidasan University and Masters in Biotechnology at the University of Madras, India. He received his PhD in the field of snake venoms and postdoctoral experience in cardiovascular diseases with specific interest on platelet signaling from the University of Reading. Currently, his research group involved in the functional characterization of inflammatory molecules such as formyl peptide and toll-like receptors in the modulation of platelet function at the interface between thrombosis and inflammation. Furthermore, his group is also engaged in analyzing the toxic components of snake venoms and their impact on various functions of cardiovascular system.
Platelets, small circulating blood cells play indispensable roles in the regulation of haemostasis via blood clotting. However, their unwarranted activation in blood vessels leads to thrombosis, which obstructs blood flow to major organs such as heart and brain resulting in heart attack and stroke, respectively. Hence, platelets act as a promising target to treat/ prevent cardiovascular diseases (primarily thrombotic diseases). Direct relationships between cardiovascular health and dietary flavonoids have been long established. Nevertheless, numerous challenges are associated with the use of dietary components in biological systems for the prevention and treatment of diseases due to their poor absorption in the intestine, the reduced bioavailability in blood stream, inability to readily cross the cell membranes and their modest stability in biological systems. Here, we report the design, synthesis, chemical characterisation and biological evaluation of Ruthenium complexes of chrysin (a natural flavonoid), and its synthesised thio-flavone and their Ruthenium derivatives for the modulation of platelet function and thrombus formation. Our results demonstrate that Ruthenium-based synthetic chrysin derivatives exert enhanced inhibitory effects in platelets under physiological conditions. Furthermore, we explored the structure-activity relationships of flavonoids with platelets through a systematic analysis of structurally-related flavones with the view of advancing the current knowledge on structure-activity relationships of flavonoids. For this, we investigated a panel of 16 synthetic flavones containing hydroxy or methoxy groups at C-7,8 positions on the A-ring with a phenyl group or its bioisosteres as the B-ring along with their thio-analogues possessing a sulfur molecule at the 4th carbon position in the C-ring for their anti-platelet efficacies. The results demonstrate that the hydroxyl groups in flavonoids are important for optimum platelet inhibitory activities. In addition, the 4-C=O and B ring phenyl groups are less critical for the anti-platelet activity of these flavonoids. Overall, our results demonstrate that Ru-thio-chrysin could serve as a promising template for the development of novel anti-thrombotic agents and this structure-activity relationship for flavonoids on platelet function may guide the design, optimisation and development of flavonoid scaffolds as anti-platelet agents.
Muhammad Riaz has PhD degree in Biochemistry from University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan and completed his six months research training at University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK. He is working as Lecturer, Department of Allied Health Sciences, Sargodha Medical College, University of Sargodha, Pakistan. He has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals. He participated and presented research papers In international conferences as oral and poster presentation.
Statement of the Problem: Because of increasing side effects of synthetic medicines, the scientific research is being diverted toward the discovery of some better alternatives in pharmaceutical preparations from natural sources. The aim of current research work was to study the effect of Mucuna pruriens (MP) seed extract on liver enzymes, serum proteins and reproducive hormone levels in male albino rats.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Seeds extract of M. pruriens was prepared in methanolic solvent and the potential effect was evaluated by administering into male albino rats for 42 days. The rats were divided into six groups of four rats in each group; as control (normal saline), Carbon tetrachloride injected (0.5 mL 20% CCl4 /Kg bw twice a week), Testosterone treated (0.5 mL 20% CCl4 + 2.5 mg testoverone/Kg bw twice a week) and MP-treated A, B & C (0.5 mL 20% CCl4 twice a week + 50, 100 & 200 mg extract/Kg bw daily, respectively) groups. Body, testis and relative testis weight of male rats were recorded. Liver enzymes and serum proteins were measured by photometric method using commercially available assay kits. Serum testosterone was determined by ELISA kit method. Histological changes in liver and testicular sections were observed through microscopy by H & E staining.
Findings: Significant (p<0.05) increase in body, testis and relative testis weight was observed in extract treated rats compared to normal and CCl4 intoxicated rats. Significant (p<0.05) dose dependent improvement in ALT and AST activity was observed extract treated rats while not in ALP activity compared to control and CCl4 treated rats. Serum proteins particularly albumin concentration vary significantly (p<0.05) in extract treated rats. Significant (p<0.05) increase in serum testosterone level was also found in rats treated with testosterone and Mucuna seeds extract. Serious damage to liver cells (hepatocytes) and testicular histology in the CCl4 intoxicated rats was observed, while an improvement was found in testosterone and extract treated rats.
Conclusion & Significance: The study concluded that MP seeds extract have therapeutic potential to revert the toxic effect of CCl4 bringing the biochemical and histological alterations toward normal. MP seeds extract may provide potential therapeutic agents to be used as medicines for various ailments.
Zhao Zhenru is working in Department of Psychiatry, National Health Group, Singapore. She also worked in Department of Community Psychiatry amd Department of Community Psychiatry at Institute of Mental Health, Singapore. Zhao Zhenru has published much research papers in different reputed journals
Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common mental illness which usually starts in the second decade of life. Onset after age of 50 is relatively rare and may be more likely to have an organic aetiology.
Method: To report a case presents symptoms of OCD in a previously healthy 66 year-old man, who was found to have a dilated perivascular space in the left lentiform nucleus.
Finding: A 66-year-old Malay gentleman who presented with repetitive, intrusive and distressing thoughts that ‘God is evil’ and compulsions of excessively praying or talking to himself to counteract the thoughts for two months. He does not have any past psychiatric history or family history of mental illness; he has never taken any psychiatric medications before and he does not abuse alcohol or illicit drugs. He was diagnosed with OCD according to DSM-V criteria. Physical and neurological examinations were unremarkable. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a non-specific hypodense focus in left lentiform nucleus, and the configuration suggested dilated perivascular space and chronic in nature. He was treated with fluoxetine and the medication was titrated up to 80 mg a day. He achieved a partial remission of his OCD after 3 months of treatment. But because of his religious belief, it is hard to involve him in psychological treatments as he finds it distressing even to elaborate on his obsessive thoughts.
Conclusion: This report adds to a body of evidence suggesting organic brain lesions can induce obsessive-compulsive symptomatology and shares our experience in managing such a case. However, more large scale research is needed to study the pathology and treatment of brain lesion induced OCD.