Neurooncology has defined the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are (at least eventually) very dangerous and life-threatening (astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumors are among the many examples of these). Among the malignant brain cancers, brainstem glioma and pons, glioblastoma multiforme, and high-grade (highly anaplastic) astrocytoma are among the worst.
A Brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain. There are two main types of tumors: cancerous (malignant) tumors and benign (non-cancerous) tumors. A malignant tumor can be divided into a primary tumor, which starts within the brain, and a secondary tumor, which has spread from elsewhere, known as a brain metastasis tumor. All types of brain tumors may produce some symptoms that vary depending on the part of the brain involved. These symptoms may include headaches, seizures, muscle weakness, problems with vision, vomiting, and mental changes.
Gangliocytoma is a rare indolent Central Nervous system tumor that is made up of mature neurons arising anywhere within the Neuroaxis. They differ from gangliogliomas as they lack neoplastic glial cells. Treatment involves surgical removal of the tumor. These are Neuroepithelial Tumour which line the ventricles of the brain and produce Cerebrospinal fluid.
In low-grade Gliomas, stereotactically guided conformal Radiotherapy should lead to a significant reduction of Radiation-associated late toxicity, while it selected groups of high-grade Gliomas the use of adjuvant or Neo-adjuvant Chemotherapy may improve survival. In primitive Neuroectodermal Tumour Prognostic Biological markers have been identified that are undergoing prospective evaluation