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General Information


Obesity is a condition where a person has accumulated so much body fat that it may cause a negative effect on their health. If  bodyweight of a person is at least 20% higher than it should be, he or she is considered as obese. If your Body Mass Index (BMI) is between 25 and 29.9 you are considered overweight.


A very low calorie diet (VLCD) involves consuming less than containing less than 3350 kilojoules (800 calories) per day. While a VLCD can be an effective method of losing weight for some obese people, is it not a suitable method for all.

To regulate different processes, we have some chemical messengers in our body called as hormones. They are one of the main factorss in causing obesity. The hormones leptin and insulin, sex hormones and growth hormone influence our appetite, metabolism (the rate at which our body burns kilojoules for energy), and body fat distribution. Obese people have high levels of these hormones that encourage abnormal metabolism and the accumulation of body fat.

Obesity in a woman during pregnancy termed as maternal obesity. Maternal obesity has a key impact on maternal metabolism and offspring development. Insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, fat oxidation and amino acid synthesis are all disrupted by maternal obesity and contribute to adverse outcomes. Modification of lifestyle is an effective intervention strategy for improvement of maternal metabolism and the prevention of adverse outcomes.


In binge eating disorder people have a tendency for overeating or the consumption of abnormal amount of food with associated negative psychological and social problems, but without subsequent purging episodes (e.g. vomiting).

Like many other medical conditions, obesity is the result of genetic and environmental factors simultaneously. Polymorphisms in various genes controlling appetite and metabolism predispose to obesity when sufficient food energy is present. People with two copies of the FTO gene (fat mass and obesity associated gene) have been found on average to weigh 3–4 kg more and have a 1.67-fold greater risk of obesity compared with those without the risk allele. The differences in BMIs of people are due to genetics  varies depending on the population examined from 6% to 85%.

 Several procedures have been performed on people under Bariatric surgery, who have obesity. Weight loss is achieved by reducing the size of the stomach with a gastric band or through removal of a portion of the stomach or gastric bypass surgery.


 The association between obesity and risk of a variety of types of cancer has received a considerable amount of attention in recent years. Obesity has been associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer (among postmenopausal women), endometrial cancer, kidney cancer, thyroid cancer, and gallbladder cancer. Obesity may also lead to increased cancer-related mortality.


 The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference.

As with obesity in adults, many factors contribute to the rising rates of childhood obesity. Changing diet and decreasing physical activity are believed to be the two most important causes for the recent increase in the incidence of child obesity. Because of the persistence of childhood obesity into adulthood and its association with numerous chronic illnesses, children who are obese are often tested for hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and fatty liver.


The main treatment for obesity concludes dieting and physical exercise. Diet programs may produce weight loss over the short term, but maintaining this weight loss is frequently difficult and often requires making exercise and a lower food energy diet a permanent part of a person's lifestyle.

Obesity causes depression. In studies it has been proved that obese people are about 25% more likely to experience a mood disorder like depression compared with those who are not affected by obesity. Obesity can cause poor self-image, low self-esteem, and social isolation, all known contributors to depression.