According to domestic and international epidemiological investigation, the proportion of substance involved sexual assault has the trend of ascent. In the past, laboratory methods that investigated urine sample of the sexual assault victims was to screen with enzyme immunoassay and then confirmed with mass spectrometry. The objective of the study is to simultaneously identify abused drugs in 126 decoded urine samples of sexual assault victims by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The instrument was operated in multiple-reaction monitoring with an electro-spray positive ionization mode. Chromatograms were separated with ACE5 C18 column on a gradient of acetonitrile. After liquid– liquid extraction, samples were passed through a 0.22 mm PVDF filter before injection into the system. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.2 to 10 ng/mL. The precision (CV) results were below 12.9% (intraday) and 15.0% (interday). The intraday accuracy ranged from 84.8 to 121.0%, interday accuracy ranged from 72.0 to 117.3%. We found that 29 (23.0%) were positive for drugs. The most common drug identified is flunitrazepam (11.1%), followed by nimetazepam and ketamine (7.9%), some new psychoactive substances, such as 2C-B, mephedrone, methylone, PMA and PMMA were also identified. We identified abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine of sexual assault victims by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
Antibiotics are pharmaceuticals which are used to cease and cure bacterial infections. Due to their rapid consumption, it leads to addiction following antibiotic abuse. Cases have been reported for antibiotic overdosage. Since not having certain protocols to detect such cases we have developed a method to detect such antibiotics from postmortem samples. A solidâ€phase extraction based on two organic solvents followed by isocratic liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy with 242nm UVâ€vis detection was achieved for determination of ertapenem antibiotic, in forensic samples. Methanol was selected as the supported liquid membrane. The elution was done by formic acid. Chromatographic separation of the drug was achieved on a Hypersil ODS C-18 150mm X 4.6mm, 5μm column using a mobile phase consisting of a binary mixture of Phosphate buffer (4.5590gm of Potassium dehydrogenate orthophosphate in 1.0 liter Water and pH was adjusted to 7.5) and Methanol in the ratio of 60:40v/v. To evaluate the capability of the proposed method in the analysis of biological samples, three different forensic samples were analyzed under the optimal conditions. The relative recoveries of the ertapenem in three different forensic samples were above the range of 70%. Thus, the developed Liquid Chromatographic method offers symmetric peak shape, good resolution and reasonable retention time for the drug. Linearity, accuracy and precision were found to be acceptable over the concentration range of 10-40microgram/ml for ertapenem.
CADM1 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule and expressed in almost all organs except for peripheral blood cells. CADM1 acts as a tumor suppressor and lost its expression in a variety of cancers in advanced stages (1). By contrast, CADM1 is ectopically expressed in adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and used as a diagnostic marker of ATL using FACS (2). Here, we demonstrate that CADM1 is also highly expressed in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (4). Immunohistochemistry showed that 33 of 44 (75%) primary SCLC tumors expressed CADM1. Interestingly, SCLC expresses a unique splicing variant of CADM1, Ph.D. 8/9, containing an additional extracellular fragment corresponding to exon 9, in addition to a common epithelial isoform, variant 8. CADM1v8/9 is almost exclusively expressed in SCLC and testis, although this variant protein localizes along the membrane and shows similar cell aggregation activity to that of CADM1v8. Moreover, we detected an extracellular fragment of CADM1v8/9 in culture media of SCLC cells. Thus, we generated a specific antibody against CADM1v8/9 by immunizing to the Cadm1-Biobank mice. Using this antibody, we have developed a prototype of the system to detect CADM1v8/9 fragments in 47% of serums from SCLC patients. Preliminary results show that CADM1v8/9 expression is independent of ProGRP expression and associated with disease progression of SCLC. These findings suggest that CADM1v8/9 would provide a useful serum biomarker for detecting SCLC.
With mobile devices being a repository of extremely intimate and personal information, users are increasingly cautious, protecting this information. The onset of security apps for phones helps people feel proactive in safeguarding their privacy. Such apps may be used for nefarious purposes such as hiding illegal images, files and communications. However, users may employ these apps to maintain privacy by hiding data from parents, guardians, siblings, spouses etc. While another potential risk for law enforcement, these apps can also be a trove of new content for investigators. However, handling and interacting with devices with such security apps should be done so with caution. In this presentation, we will explore some of the apps available, look at the risks and some data the data that is left behind and an overview of the examination process undertaken to find such data.
Accessing evidence stored in iOS devices (iPhones and iPads) is a challenge. Full-disk encryption stands in the way of low-level acquisition, while the many hardware and system level restrictions make physical extraction extremely difficult. At the same time, the iPhone must remain usable and accessible to the owner, which means a forensic specialist may still be able to get around iOS security measures. iOS devices feature several layers of protection, which makes seizing, storing and transporting iOS devices a challenge requiring expertise. Latest version of Apple’s mobile operating system actively resist forensic efforts by disabling the less secure biometric identification (Touch ID or Face ID) and blocking USB connectivity after a short period of time. Many of these restrictions can be effectively bypassed with proper timing and the right technique. In this talk, we'll cover the entire iOS forensic workflow. We'll start from seizing, transporting and storing the device, and discuss approaches, methods and tools to access information and extract evidence. We’ll address USB restricted mode, talk about using existing pairing records to extract locked devices, and discuss physical acquisition via jailbreaking. We’ll look at the types of data Apple devices store and sync via iCloud, and learn how to extract that data. Finally, we will talk about extracting stored passwords from local and iCloud keychain. Logical, physical and cloud acquisition methods will be covered.
P. B. Lohiya is a doctor of Western Medicine as well as Acupuncture.. He is founder Chairman of Indian Academy of Acupuncture Science & Indian Institute of Holistic Medicine. He is V. C. World Association of Chinese Medicine, Visiting Prof. Beijing Meridian Research Centre China, Prof. Emiratus at O.l.U.C. M. Sri Lanka. He has authored many books on Acupuncture.Presented over 25 papers of research in various international conferences throughout the world. He has been awarded many National & International accolades for his contribution to Acupuncture.
Time acupuncture according to Stem and Branches is an ancient Chinese method but the calculations are very tedious and so it is being rarely used. I have found out my own innovative method of calculations in order to find out the open point used to treat the point at a particular time. On each meridian there are five shu points related to five elements. They exist between tip of fingers / toes and elbow / knee. Shu points are sixty. Out of the sixty Shu points, each point is open for a period of two hours sucking energy from the cosmos. By rotation, 12 points are open on every day and the cycle is completed in 5 days. When we treat any patient we have to find out the open point at that time and use that point for treatment. Each cycle has 5 days while each day has 12 periods of 2 hours each. Days one to five begin and end with Wood, Fire, Earth, Metal and Water elements respectively. Each day begins at 11 pm. On each day the Elements open in sequential order according to Mother Son cycle. In each element Yang meridian is followed by Yin. Hence odd periods are Yang while Yin periods are Yin. In order to find out the open point one has to calculate the Day Number, by summing up the numbers for Year, month and date. Each period has a Stem number and a branch number. By summing up the two, the open meridian and it’s open point is found out and used for Acupuncture treatment. In order to balance that point an additional point based upon Acting cycle is also used. Chinese method is very long and difficult. I have found my own way of simple calculations. Answer is same as that of Chinese method. In cases not responding to routine method, I drop all routine points and use a set of 6 points based upon this method . It is extremely useful in difficult and non-responding cases.
Sewela Khunoana is still studying her PhD from the University of Johannesburg. She is currently lecturing chemistry to first year students at the University of Johannesburg. She has 3 of journal articles under review and awaiting her final Thesis results.
Crime in South Africa is currently a huge problem. Many criminals cases (eg. Rape and murder cases) remain unsolved due to a lack of reliable forensic evidence. The detection of body fluids such as blood has becomes problematic since existing tests such as the luminol test have inherent disadvantages. These disadvantages include a high cost and short shelf life. The need for tests which are more cost effective has therefore arisen. This study has been initiated to identify components in the plant extract of Crinium Macowanii bulb which are chemically similar to luminol and therefore can replace luminol. Such components include tryptamine alkaloid and rutin flavonoids. The preliminary Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) studies have shown that the components of the Crinium bulb are soluble in non-polar organic solvents (alkaloids) as well as in water (flavonoids). Tryptamine glows in the presence of UV-light and show potential for replacing luminol. Whereas, rutin produces chemical reactions with human blood and thus may be used in day time detections. Tests on these isolated components and their interactions with pig blood were also conducted to verify replacement for the luminol test. This study was also extended to real human blood samples. Furthermore, human blood specimens detected by luminol and alternate materials (Crinum Macowanii bulb extract) were tested for their DNA integrity to ensure that DNA remained intact upon detection for further positive identification for evidence presentation in a court of law.
Reeta R Gupta Senior Scientific Officer-II-cum-Assistant Chemical Examiner to the Government of India holds PhD(Chemistry),Post Graduate Diploma in Computer Application, Post Graduate Diploma in Business Management, Post Graduate Diploma in Environmental Science having over 14 year experience in forensic document examination, also worked Assistant Government Examiner of Questioned Document Central Forensic Science Laboratory, Chandigarh, Directorate of Forensic Science Services, Ministry of Home Affairs, New Delhi, Life Member of The Indian Science Congress Association, International Science Community Association and International Scientific Society- Society of Biophysics, Published number of articles in national and International Journals and conduction Research and development in the field of Forensic document examination.
Generally in examination of handwriting, the details of handwriting characteristic features are examined in order to ascertain the authorship. In disguised writing the writer tries to hide his own handwriting features and try to portray a different type of writing style. Doing this act he/she becomes conscious to write the text content or signature on paper. As we know that writing is an outcome of neuromuscular coordination of brain to hand, so it is very difficult to do so. The document examiner in such cases of disguised writing is faced with the challenge of recognizing the act of disguise as well as to deeply examine and find out the inconspicuous writing features left by the writer in order to fix authorship. However many of the cases related with examination of disguised writing were examined and opined by the authors. The objective of this paper is to examine the characteristic features of disguised writing. The detailed study of cases related with disguised writing will be discussed.
Nancy Lan Guo has completed her PhD from West Virginia University in 2004. She is the Professor of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences. She has published more than 42 papers in reputed journals and has two patents from the US on cancer biomarkers.
The FDA has identified pharmacogenomics as key opportunities for personalized medicine. The 21st century has witnessed breakthroughs in molecular diagnosis and prognosis in cancer treatment. This talk will introduce projects in Dr. Lan Guo’s group in West Virginia University Cancer Institute, which focuses on the identification of clinically applicable biomarkers for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) prognosis and prediction of the clinical benefits of chemotherapy. The mRNA expression of 160 genes identified from microarray was analyzed in qRT-PCR assays of independent 337 snap-frozen NSCLC tumors to develop a predictive signature. A clinical trial JBR.10 was included in the validation. A 7-gene signature was identified from training cohort (n=83) with accurate patient stratification (P=0.0043) and was validated in independent patient cohorts (n=248, P<0.0001) in Kaplan-Meier analyses. In the predicted benefit group, there was a significantly better disease-specific survival in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy in both training (P=0.035) and validation (P=0.0049) sets. In the predicted non-benefit group, there was no survival benefit in patients receiving chemotherapy in either set. The 7-gene signature is enriched in immune response. Multiple signature genes had concordant DNA copy number variation, mRNA and protein expression in NSCLC progression. Overall, the predictive 7-gene assay and prognostic protein biomarkers are clinically applicable for improving NSCLC treatment, with important implications in lung cancer chemotherapy and immunotherapy.
Thomas Bayne is a chiropractic physician who specializes in nutritional therapies and is an international expert in digestive health and detoxification. His philosophy addresses the relationship between structure and function of the human body and how that translates into your best health. Tom has over 20 years of experience in natural health and medicine. Tom’s passion for holistic medicine led him to Europe, where he had executive roles at two top natural health companies. As international marketing director for one of Europe’s leading food supplement manufacturers, his responsibilities included formulating supplements based on specific patient conditions, lecturing on his clinical experiences, research that supported natural medicines and developing educational materials for physicians and pharmacies. Tom has developed over 35 highly successful and effective products that are sold directly to physicians. His 20 years of clinical experience combined with his extensive knowledge in product development has led to the development of MegaSporeBiotic.
Dietary or metabolic endotoxemia is a condition that affects approximately 1/3 of individuals living in Western society. It is characterized by increased serum endotoxin concentration during the first five hours of the post-prandial period following consumption of a meal with a high-fat, high-calorie content. Long-term repeated dietary endotoxemia may increase the risk of developing a variety of chronic diseases. Of the available treatments, oral probiotic supplementation has been purported to reduce gastrointestinal permeability to endotoxin, which in theory should suppress the dietary endotoxin response. The purpose of this study was to determine if 30-d of oral probiotic supplementation could reduce post-prandial dietary endotoxemia in “responder” subjects. Apparently healthy men and women (N=75) were screened for post-prandial dietary endotoxemia. Subjects whose serum endotoxin concentration increased by at least 5-fold from pre-meal levels at 5-h post-prandial were considered “responders” and were randomized to receive either placebo (rice flour) or multi-strain probiotic supplement (Bacillus indicus (H36), Bacillus subtilis (H58), Bacillus coagulans, and Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus clausii) for 30-d. The dietary endotoxemia test was repeated at the conclusion of the supplementation period. Dietary endotoxin (LAL) and triglycerides (enzymatic) were measured using an automated chemistry analyzer. Serum disease risk biomarkers were measured using bead-based multiplex assays as secondary, exploratory measures. Data were statistically analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and a P < 0.05. We found that probiotic supplementation was associated with a 42% reduction in endotoxin (P=0.011) and 24% reduction in triglyceride (P=0.004) in post-prandial period Placebo subjects presented with a 36% increase in endotoxin and 5% decrease in triglycerides over the same post-prandial period. We also found that probiotic supplementation was associated with significant post-prandial reductions in IL-12p70 (P=0.017), IL-1b (P=0.020), and ghrelin (P=0.017) compared to placebo subjects. The key findings of the present study, were that oral probiotic supplementation reduced responses that were consistent with “leaky gut syndrome” and transient reductions in chronic/metabolic disease risk.