Biomarkers, in other words, biological markers deal with medical science being a source of identification and observation of varied underlying diseases. Observable signs are sometimes in contrast to medical symptoms, which are limited to those indications of health or illness perceived by patients themselves. They allow the assessment of such symptoms via a therapeutic interference thereby framing a pharmacological response. This session of Biomarkers 2020 includes the basic ideology behind heterogeneous biomarkers relating to their discovery, validation, and verification.
Classification of biological markers is broadly divided into three categories i.e., Prognostic, Diagnostic and Predictive basing upon their functionality and implementation methodology. As the names suggest some are being put to use before initiating the treatment while others act as indicators after implementation of medical procedure. Biomarkers linking to early indication of certain risk factors help in curbing the diseases prior to any severe damage. Biomarkers 2020 intends to gather people from varied sectors to provide us with the knowledge of types of biomarkers and their proper uses.
Lifestyle of people i.e., nutrition, medication, nursing in specific is being critically enhanced by the application of biomarkers. Pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or fungi causing infectious diseases have been a major threat around the globe and have a huge impact on public health and the world economy. Diseases linked to our metabolism like diabetes, respiratory chronic diseases and cardiovascular diseases are much predominant on today’s date. Session on this topic links to cancer, nutrition, nursing and alternative medicine, metabolomics-based investigations and non-cancerous diseases as well.
Oncology is linked to the usage of biomarkers for determination of a patient’s risk of developing a malignancy using risk reduction strategies (such as lifestyle changes, prophylactic surgery, or chemoprevention). Biomarkers have been proven to be a certified indicator of such malignancies at the initial stages. These can be used for patient assessment of patients including estimating risk of disease, screening occult primary cancers, distinguishing benign from malignant impressions or one type of malignant finding from another, prognosis and prediction for patients diagnosed with cancer, and surveillance of the disease, either to detect iterating factors or response to therapy. Biomarkers bring the department of Oncology and the sectors related such as cytological biomarkers, biomarkers for cancer stem cells, haematological cancer, etc.
Immuno-oncology focuses on working and preaching assistance from our own immune system so as to opt for treatments to fight cancer. Cancer-targeting immunotherapy works with the perspective of modelling the immune system in a way through which it perceives cancer as a foreign entity and starts prepping up to curb it at its initial stage. This session links to various general immunotherapies, cancer linked immunotherapies (monoclonal antibodies, etc.), immunotherapies linked with other treatments like radiology, chemotherapy, surgery.
Genetic mutations nowadays are a source of biomarkers and are widely in use. Molecular markers and translational markers play the kingpin in certain genre of cancers e.g. lungs cancer, hepatic cancer, etc. in determining and mitigating the same. The coincidence of genetic toxicity events with the initial stages of cancer has aggravated great interest in molecular/cytogenetic epidemiological studies for implementing DNA repair along with carcinogen metabolism and DNA biomarkers with cancer risk. Talks and ideologies in this session could provide information regarding cytological epidemiology, DNA markers, epigenetic mediated gene silencing, and translational diagnosis.
Drug discovery and drug development coupled with biomarkers are used exclusively for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients in clinical trials. Biomarkers enhance the success rate of drug development programmes and thereby accelerate the availability of advanced therapeutics. Biomarker development is a multistep and recurrent process starting with biomarker discovery in infectious diseases. In this session, analytical validation phase of biomarker development, pharmacogenomics, functional proteomics, bio analytical method of validation, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics models.
Nanoparticle-based assays are gradually unfolding as an upcoming approach, providing ultra-high sensitive and specific detection in case of cancer biomarker. The on-going survey presents an overview of methodologies used in the development and usage of nanoparticles for the detection of cancer biomarkers including mass spectrometry, optical and electrical detection methods. Nanoparticles are highly sensitive, selective and accelerate biomarker detection methods, emphasising their detection probabilities in assays for trace amounts of a biomarker in various types of biological ï¬‚uids be it tears or urine.
Therapeutic Biomarkers are emerging to newer heights along with improvised advancements in their way of operation. This is generally a protein that could be used as target for a therapy. Most of the emerging biomarkers hail from the diagnosis and prognosis related to cancer and tumor therapies. This session of Biomarkers 2020 deals with Biomarkers as surrogate endpoint for clinical trials, Biomarkers for targeted therapy, immuno-oncology.
Clinical research governs the productivity and safety of various products and inventions proposed for human use. In this process the validity, shelf life, threats and efficacy of the biomarkers in various fields is being tested and verified. This session includes the usage of biomarkers (especially pharmacodynamics) for biomarkers in sectors of oncology, immunology, neurology, epidemiology.
Biomarker testing performs tests that focuses on the molecular signs of health so that there will be proper diagnosis and care. Certain tissues or fluid samples are being collected for the experimentation thereby providing a prognostic idea about any alarming threat to health. This section plays a key role in the Biomarker 2020 as it includes the ethical issues, process of implementation, experimentation and organised observation of biological markers for the diagnosis purpose.
Biomarkers are considered as the lynchpin of future medicine in regards to their advancement and accuracy. Investors and industrialists especially in the sector of pharmaceuticals and epidemiology are booming at an alarming rate because of the profits and high revenue. In the sector of medicine the contribution of biomarkers still remains unmatchable. This session anchors all the future perspective of biomarkers, advancements and applications as well.