A Biomarkers is an appropriate that can be equitably measured and assess as an indicator of a physiological as well as a pathological progress or pharmacological response to a therapeutic intervention. Classical biomarkers are quantitative alteration in blood pressure; blood lactate levels consecutive exercises, and blood glucose in diabetes mellitus. A biomarker, or bio indicator, for the most part alludes to a quantifiable pointer of some organic state or condition. The term is additionally infrequently used to allude to a substance the nearness of which demonstrates the presence of a living being. Environmental Assessment also carried out in the natural or synthetic form as biomonitoring. Encourage, life structures, life events for Interim analysis. Biomarkers are regularly measured and assessed to look at ordinary natural procedures, pathogenic procedures, or pharmacologic reactions to a restorative mediation.
Clinical medicine as Biomarkers has been used for decades. A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention Any specific molecular conversion of a cell on DNA, RNA, metabolite, or protein level can be referred to as Molecular biomarkers .The fuse of biomarker in clinical trials for different illness conditions will advance a certain indicative and remedial approach using even the medicinal gadgets to recognize clinical biomarkers. Right now, this is the trending business.
The indicative process of the presence of cancer in the body is referred as cancer biomarkers. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. There are different of cancer where biomarkers have it application such as lung, Melanoma, breast, Colorectal, Pancreas and many more. Biochemically, cancer biomarkers can be DNA (germline or somatic), RNA, proteins, peptides, hormones, metabolites, and even biological processes such as apoptosis, angiogenesis or proliferation. There are three major types of cancer biomarkers based on their clinical use: prognostic, predictive, and pharmacodynamic markers.
A biomarker is a distinctive that can be equitably measured as an indicator of commonly biological processes, pathogenic processes or a pharmacological response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be used for many purposes including disease diagnosis and prognosis, prediction and assessment of treatment response. Also, Biomarkers are used as an indicator of a biological factor that represents either a subclinical manifestation, stage of the disorder, or a surrogate manifestation of the disease. The potential uses of this class of biomarkers include, firstly as identification of individuals destined to become affected or who are in the “preclinical” stages of the illness, secondly, reduction in disease heterogeneity in clinical trials or epidemiologic studies, third, reflection of the natural history of disease encompassing the phases of induction, latency and detection, and finally, target for a clinical trial.
Those putative biomarkers for Disease diagnosis and prognosis the complexity of structure and function of protein biomarkers and lack of high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility. The Food and Drug Administration has approved few biomarkers due to its advanced technology. The practical application of each protein separation or identification technique is analyzed using specific examples, Including four major application of immunology as ELISA, FACS, Western Blot and Immunoprecipitation. Mass spectrometers are unique which can directly analyze any biological molecule likely to be influenced to ionization. The biological studies of human metabolites and proteins using recent mass spectrometry technology (metabolomics and proteomics, respectively) have been ongoing for over a decade.
The major uses of biomarkers in clinical investigation are in the form of clinical trials and monitoring. The entire spectrum of disease from the earliest indication to the terminal stages resonate biomarkers. Field studies of biomarkers is generally done on the environmental assessment based on aquatic contamination by seeing the aqua life or by understanding the normal habitat change of different organism .biomarkers also shows the best relationships between its response when compared to the health /ecological effect. It provides variety of human and animal materials principally through immuno-assays and quantitative PCR can be analytically determined at Biomarker Laboratory.
A biologic aspect or biomarker detectable in an image is being termed as imaging biomarkers. The most valuable sources of data in evidence-based medicine are to be known as clinical trials. As Instrumentation, it involves different tools and techniques such as, CT, MRI, PET and ultrasonography biomarkers which are broadly used in cancer research and drug development. As medical imaging has made advanced technologies, older corresponding techniques have been repeatedly exchanged with newer digital methods of image acquisition, processing, archiving, and display. This evolution has occurred in parallel with advancements in our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of disease and the rise of a more statistical and evidence-based approach to diagnosis and treatment.
Any biological specimen that is an indicator of nutritional status with respect to intake or metabolism of dietary constituents is termed as nutritional biomarkers. It can be a biochemical, functional or clinical index of status of an essential nutrient or other dietary constituent. Biomarkers as a means of validation of dietary instruments; surrogate indicators of dietary intake; or combined measures of nutritional status for a nutrient. For a biomarker to be used for validation of a dietary instrument, it should have a strong direct relationship with dietary intakes and be an independent assessment of the dietary intake of the nutrient of interest.
To develop “early warning” indicators at the individual level that can predict population or ecosystem level impacts is the main aim of research of environmental biomarkers. The behavior (or activities) of an organism represent the final integrated result of a diversity of biochemical and physiological processes. Thus, a single evident parameter is generally more extensive than a physiological or biochemical parameter.
The future application of biomarkers in critical illness will be to select and guide therapy. Selective biomarkers could analyze a pathophysiologic perturbation or noxious mediator to counteract or the need to replete a deficient protective protein. Functional genomics could identify patients at risk for illness or at risk for a poor outcome in critical illness. Genetic expression studies could help differentiate patients with the presence in tissues of harmful bacteria and their toxins from those with noninfectious inflammation and could also help to monitor illnesses over time. Expressional and functional proteomics could lead to the identification of new biomarkers and organ-specific therapies.
Current genomics and biotechnology promise the development of biomarkers to predict individual disease risk which enable early detection of disease, and improve diagnostic classification to better inform individualized treatment. Biomarkers are biological measurements that can be used to predict risk of disease, to enable early detection of disease, to improve treatment selection and to monitor the outcome of therapeutic interventions. The major objective of the Human Genome Project was the identification and development of such biomarkers for ‘personalized, preventive and predictive medicine.
An emerging medical discipline that involves using genomic information about an individual as part of their clinical care (e.g., for diagnostic or therapeutic decision-making) and the health outcomes and policy implications of that clinical use. Already, genomic medicine is making an impact in the fields of oncology, pharmacology, rare and undiagnosed diseases, and infectious disease.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) involving the heart, brain, and peripheral circulation is the leading cause of death worldwide. Genetics play a role in conferring risk for nearly all CVD disorders. Enormous effort has been undertaken to understand genes responsible for or protected from CVD. Cardiovascular disease encloses a range of conditions extending from myocardial infarction to congenital heart disease most of which are heritable. Immense effort has been invested in understanding the genes and specific DNA sequence variants responsible for this heritability
One of the major challenges in biology is to connect genotypes to phenotypes and to identify the ecological and demographic parameters that have shaped genotype frequencies in natural populations. Ecological Genomics is an integrative field of study that seeks to understand the genetic mechanisms underlying adaptive responses of organisms to their environment. Biological diversity emerges from the interaction between genomes and their environment. Recent conceptual and technological developments allow dissecting these interactions over short and long time-scales
The entire set of nucleic acid sequence of an individual are being encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria is being an advancement in human genomics. Both protein-coding DNA genes and noncoding DNA are included in human genomics. Human Genomics focuses on the application of genomic analysis in all aspects of human health and disease, as well as the genomic analysis of adverse drug reactions, drug efficacy and safety.
Genomics research holds the key to meeting many of the challenges of the coming years. Now, the biggest challenge is in data analysis. We can generate large amounts of data very inexpensively, but that overwhelms our capacity to understand it. The major challenge of the Genome Research is we need to infuse genomic information into medical practice, which is hard. There are issues around confidentiality, education, electronic medical records, how to carry genomic information throughout lifespan and make it available to physicians.
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), massively parallel or deep sequencing are related terms that describe a DNA sequencing technology which has revolutionized genomic research. The global next Generation Sequencing market is poised to grow at a CAGR of more than 20% to reach around $5.0 billion by 2020. The NGS market assessment was made based on products, technologies, end users, applications and geography.