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Scientific Program | Nanotechnology Conference | Meetings International | 2018 | 2019

International Conference on

NanoTechnology and NanoEngineering

Paris, France    July 16-18, 2018

Program Schedule

Monday, July 16 , 10:30 - 11:10

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Keynote Speaker Osman Adiguzel photo

Keynote Forum

Osman Adiguzel

Firat University, Turkey

Title

Physical basis and atomic scale aspects of displacive transformations of shape memory alloys

Biography

Dr Adiguzel graduated from Department of Physics, Ankara University, Turkey in 1974 and received PhD- degree from Dicle University, Diyarbakir-Turkey in Solid State Physics with experimental studies on diffusionless phase transformations in Ti-Ta alloys in 1980. He has studied at Surrey University, Guildford, UK, as a post doctoral research scientist in 1986-1987, and He studied on shape memory alloys. He worked as research assistant, 1975-80, at Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey. He moved to Firat University in 1980, and became professor in 1996, and He has already been working as professor. He published over 50 papers in international and national journals; He joined over 80 conferences and symposia in international and national level as participant, invited speaker or keynote speaker with contributions of oral or poster.

He served the program chair or conference chair/co-chair in some of these activities. In particular, he joined in last three years (2014 - 2016) over 20 conferences as Keynote Speaker and Conference Co-Chair organized by different companies.  He supervised 5 PhD- theses and 3 M.Sc- theses He supervised 5 PhD- theses and 3 M.Sc- theses.

Dr. Adiguzel served his directorate of Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Firat University in 1999-2004. He received a certificate which is being awarded to him and his experimental group in recognition of significant contribution of 2 patterns to the Powder Diffraction File – Release 2000. The ICDD (International Centre for Diffraction Data) also appreciates cooperation of his group and interest in Powder Diffraction File.

Abstract

Shape memory alloys are stimulus respective materials to external effects like temperature changes and stressing. These alloys can be used temperature responsive materials due to this property. Shape memory effect is governed successive thermal and stress induced martensitic transformations. These alloys take place in class of smart materials, due to this property. Martensitic transformations are first order displacive transformations   and the product phase inherits the order of parent phase. Two crystallographic reactions, lattice twinning and detwinning, govern shape memory effect. Thermal induced martensite occurs as twinned martensite by means of lattice invariant shear, and the twinned structures turn into the detwinned structures by means of stress induced martensitic transformation by deforming material in the martensitic condition. The crystal structures of materials  cycle between ordered parent phase and detwinned martensitic structures, whereas the material cycles between original and deformed shapes in bulk level, on heating an cooling, respectively.  Martensitic structures in β-phase alloys are closely related to the austenite structures and inherit the order in the parent phase due to the displacive character of transformation. Biocompatibility of these alloys is one of the most important properties related to their biomedical applications as orthopedic implants, stent as well as orthodontic devices.

In the present contribution, basic mechanism of martensitic transformation and shape memory phenomena are described from the viewpoints of physical and crystallographic basis. Experimental studies were employed in copper based shape memory alloys, which exhibit this property in β- phase region, and they are widely used as shape memory component in devices. Lattice twinning and lattice invariant shears occur in non-uniform way in copper based shape memory alloys, and this process causes to the formation of the long period complex layered structures. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) studies were carried out on two copper based ternary alloys. The x-ray diffractograms taken in a long time intervals from the aged specimens at room temperature reveal the structural changes in diffusive manner.

In conclusion, one can say that shape memory alloys become noticeable as smart materials in the biomedical field as well as mechanical application in many fields of industry.

Monday, July 16 , 11:20-11:50

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Keynote Speaker Lellouche J.-P photo

Keynote Forum

Lellouche J.-P

Bar-Ilan University, Israel

Title

Surface-Engineered Lanthanide Cation-Doped -Maghemite Nanoparticles (NPs) - Innovative NPs Functionalization/Nanoscale Drug Delivery for Effective Anti-Leishmania Bioactivity

Biography

Prof./Dr. J.-P. Lellouche (PhD degree, 1981-University Claude Bernard/La Doua, Lyon, France) joined the Department of Chemistry/Institute of Nanotechnology & Advanced Materials (BINA) at Bar-Ilan University since October 2000 as Full Professor (Organic Chemistry/Nano(bio)technology - July 2008) & Chemistry Dpt Head (Oct 2017). His main R&D activities includes R&D cutting-edge Materials Science level interfacing with nano(bio)technology. He has authored 149 papers. His main research interests focus on conductive polymers, sol-gel & polymeric surfaces/matrices/NPs, MRI & drug delivery/gene silencing, antibacterial/anti-parasitic nanomaterials and coatings, UV-photoreactive particles for surface nano(micro)structuration of polymeric coatings, catalytic particles (fuel cell technology), & transition metal dichalcogenide nanostructures.

 

Abstract

Iron oxide (FexOy) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in numerous biotechnology applications (magnetism-driven cell separation/cell tracking, magnetic field-guided drug/gene delivery, non-invasive tissue MRI, anti-cancer hyperthermia). But serious drawbacks like challenging detrimental NPs aggregation and controlled NPs surface functionalization versatility request quite innovative solutions.

 

       Our recent R&D work in this field led to the discovery of a novel method/concept for promoting (i) the effective anti-aggregation control of 5.0-6.5 nm-sized hydrophilic super-paramagnetic maghemite (-Fe2O3) NPs, and (ii) its successful use for NPs functionalization/versatile NPs surface engineering toward siRNA-mediated gene delivery/silencing cancer/anti-parasitic therapy-relevant applications. Such an innovative multi-parametric NPs surface engineering methodology exploits both globally optimized controlled Design Of Experiment (DoE) (i) high-power ultrasound (US)-assisted lanthanide metal Ce(III/IV) cation/complex doping, and (ii) polymer/small ligand-based NPs surface engineering towards innovative drug delivery-relating maghemite NPs. Interestingly, this powerful critical 1st step Ce3/4+ cation/complex-doping process enabled an effective highly positive charge control of problematic NPs aggregation and full NPs water compatibility for a wide range of biological applications. Quite significantly, it also enables the effective development of versatile surface engineering coordinative linkages/chemistries using well-known effective Ce3/4+Ln cation/complex-based coordination capabilities via any potential Lewis basis biomolecule/organic species (hyaluronic/alginic acids, 25kDa branched polyethyleneimine (25bPEI), anti-Leishmania Pentamidine (Pent) drug, etc.…) simultaneous covalent binding.

 

       This versatile DoE-globally optimized NPs surface engineering enabled the discovery of specifically DoE-optimized surface-chemically modified hybrid Pentamidine-containing functional -Fe2O3 NPs that disclosed highly powerful anti-parasitic (anti-Leishmania) bioactivity (both in vitro/in vivo effectiveness).1-3

 

Monday, July 16 , 11:50-12:20

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Keynote Speaker Waldemar Nawrocki photo

Keynote Forum

Waldemar Nawrocki

Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Title

Electrical Resistance of Metallic and Semiconductor Nanowires

Biography

Waldemar Nawrocki is Professor of electronics at Poznan University of Technology, Poland, where he earned a Ph.D. in technical sciences in 1981. Dr. Nawrocki also holds a D.Sc. in physics from Jena University, Germany, in 1990. His research fields are: Applications of  quantum effects in metrology, Quantization of conductance in mesoscopic systems, Noise thermometry, Cryoelectronics, Measurement systems. Dr. Nawrocki has published 14 books, e.g. Measurement Systems and Sensors (Artech House, 1st edition – 2005, and 2nd edition - 2016) and Introduction to Quantum Metrology (Springer, 2015). Over the period 2006 to 2016 he organized and chaired five international conferences on quantum metrology.

 

Abstract

In the paper electrical resistance (conductance) and thermal conductance of metallic and semiconductor nanowires are discussed. We have analyzed and measured nanowires created of gold, copper, tin, silicon and germanium because of using them for manufacturing of integrated electronic devices. Electrical conductance GE and thermal conductance GT of a nanostructure describe the effect of electron transport in nanowires. Electrical conductance quantization in nanowires has been observed in units of G0 = 2e2/h = (12.9 k)-1 up to five quanta of conductance according to the theory proposed by Landauer [1]. In the paper we present our measurements of electrical conductance quantization in Au nanowires at room temperature [2]. The quantization of thermal conductance is considered in a similar way like the electrical conductance. In one-dimension systems are formed conductive channels. Each channel contributes to a total thermal conductance with the quantum of thermal conductance GT0. Quantized thermal conductance and its quantum (unit) GT0 was confirmed by Schwab [3]. The quantum of thermal conductance GT0 [W/K] = (p2kB2/3h)T = 9.5×10-13T depends on the tempera-ture. At T = 300 K value of GT0 = 2.8×10-10 [W/K]. This value is determined for an ideal ballistic transport in a nanowire

 

Monday, July 16 , 12:20:12:50

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Keynote Speaker Aharon Gedanken photo

Keynote Forum

Aharon Gedanken

Bar-Ilan University, Israel

Title

Making the hospital a safer place by the sonochemical coating of textiles and medical devices with antibacterial

Biography

Prof. (Emeritus) Aharon Gedanken, of the Department of Chemistry, is a member of the Nano Materials Center at the Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials (BINA), and a recipient of the President of Israel Achievement Award for coordination of a European Funded Research. Gedanken is a pioneer of sonochemistry – a discipline in which chemical reactions are accelerated through the application of ultrasonic sound waves. His many discoveries include a process that removes heavy metals ions from polluted water using aquatic plants and microwave radiation - a fast and low-cost method for producing purified water on the one hand, and metallic nanoparticles on the other hand.

Abstract

Sonochemistry is an excellent technique to coat nanomaterials on various substrates, imparting new properties to the substrates. After a short demonstration of coating NPs on ceramics and stainless steel, I'll present the coating of textiles such as polyester, cotton, and nylon. In all cases a homogeneous coating of NPs was achieved. Silver is known for generations as antibacterial, and indeed the Ag NPs have killed the gram-negative E. Coli (strain 1313) as well as the gram-positive Staphylococus aureus (strain 195) bacteria very efficiently. Lately, the FDA shows less enthusiasm towards nanoAg, as a result, we have moved to NPs of ZnO, and CuO as antibacterial agents. They were coated on the above-mentioned fabrics and showed excellent antibacterial properties. The coated textiles were examined for the changes in the mechanical strength of the fabric. A special attention was dedicated to the question whether the NPs are leaching off the fabric when washed repeatedly. The coated ZnO NPs on cotton underwent 65 washing cycles at 92 0 C in water in a Hospital washing machine, no NPs were found in the washing solution and the antibacterial behavior was maintained. Recently, an experiment was conducted at PIGOROV Hospital in Sofia, Bulgaria in which one operation room was equipped with antibacterial textiles, namely, bed sheets, pajamas, pillow cover, and bed cover. 22 Patients in this operation room were probed for bacterial infections. Their infection level was compared with 17 control patient that were using regular textiles. The results are demonstrating that a lower infection level is observed for those patient exposed to the antibacterial textiles. Lately, we have synthesized NPs of a new material, Cu0.89Zn0.11O that kills bacteria 10,000 times better than ZnO or CuO. The mechanism of the killing was studied and will be presented. Coating medical devices was our next step. We have coated (Catheters, Contact lenses, Silicon Implants, cochlear electrodes) with the above-mentioned metal oxides NPs as well as with MgF2 NPs.

Coating of Catheters with the above mentioned NPs were performed and the coated catheters were inserted in rabbits. Results showed that the urine of the rabbits was not contaminated with

 

bacteria and the growth of biofilm on the Catheters is avoided.
 

 

Monday, July 16 , 13:45-14:15

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Keynote Speaker Jiangtao Cheng photo

Keynote Forum

Jiangtao Cheng

Virginia Tech College of Engineering, USA

Title

Concave bending of contact line due to polarization and surface trapping

Biography

 

Dr. Jiangtao Cheng received his Ph.D. degree in Physics from Purdue University in 2002. He also has a M.S. degree in Computer Science from Purdue University and a B.S. degree in Applied Physics from Peking University at Beijing. Prior to joining the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Virginia Tech in 2015 as Associate Professor, Dr. Cheng was a research associate at the Pennsylvania State University and a research scientist at Teledyne Scientific Company (formerly Rockwell Science Center). He has served as the principal investigators of several research projects funded by DOE, NASA, DARPA and NSF respectively. He has authored/co‐authored more than 50 papers in journals and conferences. Dr. Cheng has won numerous awards in his career including four times of Best Paper Awards in international conferences and 2013 Outstanding Overseas Young Scholar Award from China NSF. In 2010, Dr. Cheng’s project “Optofluidic Solar Concentrators” was announced by the U.S. Department of Energy as one of the “six transformational energy research and development projects that could revolutionize how the country uses, stores, and produces energy”. Dr. Cheng has extensive experience in thermal-fluid sciences, renewable energy, micro/nano-fluidics, optofluidics, multiphase fluid flow, nano-fabrications and CFD numerical simulation."

 

Abstract

The formation and configuration of three phase (solid/liquid/vapor) contact line is of central importance in understanding wetting dynamics and electrowetting. The contact zone can be divided into four regions: the macroscopic region, the mesoscopic region, the proximal region, and the molecular region. However, the contact angle and the contact line profile within the molecular region still remain obscure. In this study, we used molecular dynamics simulation to examine the contact line profile in the molecular region. It is found that the contact line experiences concave bending at the molecular region, which is induced by the polarization of water molecules therein and the friction among the layered structure of trapped water molecules. The polarization near the solid surface manifest in the form of orientation bias of water molecules. The surface trapping of water molecules in the proximity of solid surface occurs in the form of oscillating peak densities in the density profile. Both effects, which are restricted to approximately 1 nm away from the solid surface, contribute to additional energy dissipation in the process of contact line formation and work jointly as an extra term in the modified Young-Laplace equation.

 

  • Green Nanotechnology | Nanoengineering | Nanobiotechnology | Graphenes and 2D Materials | Nanoelectronics | Nanomechanics

Monday, July 16, 14:15-14:35

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker Hewitt Corey photo

Session Introduction

Hewitt Corey

Wake Forest University, USA

Title

Modulation doping and energy filtering in two-dimensional, diChalcogenides: Moving toward flexible thermoelectrics with a ZT ~ 1

Biography

Dr. Hewitt Corey received his PhD from Wesleyan University in Connecticut and did his postdoctoral work at the University of Pennsylvania. He also served as a staff scientist at the Max-Planck-Institut für Metallforschung in Stuttgart before moving first to Clemson University then to Wake Forest University where he became Director of the Nanotechnology Center. Dr. Carroll has published more than 300 papers in reputed journals (h = 60), holds more than 30 patents, and serves on the editorial board of several academic journals.

 

Abstract

Two-dimensional systems, with simply connected topologies, have been synthesized in dichalcogenides. Such materials present novel opportunities in heterogeneous conduction. This talk will demonstrate a phase coherent, metal dopant added to reactive edges of these low-dimensional dichalcogenide system that dramatically alters the conduction behavior of such materials in unexpected ways. Temperature dependent conductivity suggests that local band bending across the interface acts as an energy filter for carrier injection. Further, significant decoupling between the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient is observed in films of these platelettes, leading to surprisingly high power factors. A fivefold/eightfold increase in thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) and power factor (PF) is seen over pure Bi2Te3 platelettes with the addition of Ag/Cu respectively, with the correlate being the barrier height at the platelette edge. This yields a ZT of 0.39 for Ag-doped Bi2Te3 and 0.6 for Cu-doped Bi2Te3, both at room temperature.  The ZT is further increased to 0.93 at 470 K in the Cu case. First principles band structure calculations show that the electronics of the semiconductor-metal interfaces are quite different for edge and facial configurations, suggesting that the site of metal dopant plays an important role in the enhanced thermoelectric performance.

 

Monday, July 16, 14:35-15:55

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker XinJina Chen photo

XinJina Chen

University of Utah, USA

Title

Extraordinary anticancer activity of graphene oxide-associated therapeutic antibodies

Biography

Dr. Chen is an assistant professor of pathology at the University of Utah School of Medicine. He received his MD from Hunan Medical College in Changsha, China and completed residency training in pathology at Emory University School of Medicine. Dr. Chen also completed a fellowship in dermatology at Stanford University Medical Center as well as a fellowship in pathology at Emory University School of Medicine.

Abstract

Monday, July 16, 15:55-16:15

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker Nishimura Shun photo

Nishimura Shun

Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Japan

Title

Fine crystallization of layer double hydroxides with silica nanoseeds and high activity for base catalysis

Biography

SN is the Senior Lecturer in Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST). He has completed his PhD in Materials Science at the age of 28 years from JAIST in 2011, supervised by Profs. K. Ebitani and S. Maenosono. His research interests lie in the development of highly-functionalized nano-structured catalysts by mechanistic approaches, especially heterometallic nanoparticle catalyst for facile transformations. So far, he has published 50 refereed papers, 6 reviews/book chapters, 10 conference proceedings, and 14 patents application. He received the 2016 JAIST President’s Award (Research Activity Award) in September 2016, and the Monthly Journal Award of the Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan (BCSJ) in March 2012.

 

Abstract

Layer double hydroxide (LDH) clays are one of the highly-attractive nanomaterials because of their high potentials on adsorption capacity, cation-exchange ability of the Brucite layer, anion-exchange ability of the interlayer space, and tunable basicity of the surface. Therefore, various synthetic approaches have been investigated in previous reports for difference purposes [1-3]. Herein, we challenged the preparation of fine-crystalized LDH materials with silica nanoseeds and evaluated its catalytic performance for Knoevenagel condensation as a model reaction. The main idea of this approach is the utilization of small-size SiO2 seeds to prepare the fine crystals of LDHs, and which afford higher activity for the conventional LDH-catalyzed organic transformations as not only Knoevenagel condensation, but also epoxidation, transesterification, isomerization, etc.

Size effect of silica seeds was compared between 250 nm and 40 nm in SiO2@Mg-Al LDH (Si/(Mg+Al) = 5, Mg/Al = 3). The LDH crystalline sizes prepared with 40 nm SiO2 at (003) and (110) directions were much smaller than that of 250 nm, determined by XRD. The ratio of Si-O-Al and/or Si-O-Mg conjugations estimated by Si NMR in the former case gave higher values than the latter. These results suggested that utilization of smaller SiO2 seeds would gave stronger impact to control self-assembly of LDH during in-situ co-precipitation procedure. In particular, the reactivity of SiO2(40 nm)@Mg-Al LDH gave higher activity for the model reaction than conventional Mg-Al LDH prepared with co-precipitation method without seeds [4].

According to our recent study, the effect of Si/(Mg+Al) ratio is strongly contributed to both crystal size of LDH and the reactivity for the Knoevenagel condensation; the highest activity was obtained at Si/(Mg+Al) = 0.17. 

Monday, July 16, 16:20-16:40

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker Sheng Yong Xu photo

Sheng Yong Xu

Peking University Beijing, China

Title

The roles of nanomaterials in electrical communication, neural connection and brain function of biosystems

Biography

Prof. Shengyong Xu obtained his Ph.D. degree in 1999 from National University of Singapore, worked there in 1999-2001, and at Pennsylvania State University in 2001-2006. Since 2006 he has been working at Peking University on the underlying physics of electrical communication in biosystems, including soft-material electromagnetic (EM) waveguides, propagation of EM pulses in axons and among cells, working mechanism of brain, etc. His group also work on time-resolved 2D mapping of temperature distribution for micro-devices and single cells.

 

 

Abstract

Electrical and chemical communication exists extensively among cells of both animals and plants. We reviewed the roles of several natural nanomaterials, such as phosphorous lipid bilayers, protein ion channels, connecting proteins, vesicles of neurotransmitters, in neural functions and brain functions at the cell and system levels. Membranes serve as the dielectric isolation layers for a transmembrane ion concentration gradient, and as the frameworks in electrolyte-membrane-electrolyte waveguides for transmission of pulsed electromagnetic waves [1,2]. Proteins serve as sources for generation of electromagnetic pulsed waves. Nano-sensors turn heat, pressure, sounds, smells and photon interactions into electrical signals. Neurotransmitters and connection proteins help chemical synapses turn into electrical synapses, and thus may form strongly connected 2D and/or 3D neurosome networks as data codes for memory and brain functions [3-5]. In this wonderful nano-bio-world, many questions remain open to date.

 

Monday, July 16, 16:40-17:00

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker Anna Catharina Maria Backerra photo

Anna Catharina Maria Backerra

Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands

Title

Electrons without effective mass as described by twin physics

Biography

Backerra has graduated in theoretical physics at the Eindhoven University of Technology in The Netherlands at the age of 23 years and worked for three years at Philips Research Laboratories. She continued independently, making a search for complementary physics. To develop a way of complementary thinking, she studied composition at the Conservatory in Enschede and in Saint Petersburg (Russia). After that she constructed a complementary mathematical language and applied this on physics, obtaining twin physics. The results of the last eight years are published in Physical Essays (3 papers) and in Applied Physics Research (3 papers).

Abstract

A formalism is developed, based on the concept that determinate and indeterminate aspects of phenomena are mutually independent, and that they occur joined in nature in such a manner that one of both dominates an observation. This so-called complementary language represents a dualistic way of considering the universe. The quantization of Planck and the uncertainty relations of Heisenberg are incorporated from scratch.  The basic item in the theory is the Heisenberg-unit, defined as a constant amount of potential energy. This mathematical item is the key to a better understanding of the universe, because it allows a fundamental division between potential and actual energy. Only by interaction with another Heisenberg unit, the potential energy can be transformed into physical items. Using this item, a series of elementary particles as well as neutron decay, the difference between gravity and electricity, and gravitational waves can be described.   In this lecture we concentrate on the description of electrons, divided in four types depending on rest mass and spin. The electron of type 4 has only charge, without mass and spin and this seems to be compatible with the features of graphene.

Tuesday, July 17 , 10:10-10:40

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Keynote Speaker Thomas V Prevenslik photo

Keynote Forum

Thomas V Prevenslik

QED Radiations, China

Title

Neuro-degenerative diseases by UV radiation from nanoparticles

Biography

Thomas Prevenslik developed the theory of simple QED based on the Planck law of quantum mechanics. Differing from the complex QED by Feynman and others, simple QED assumes any heat absorbed in NPs having high surface-to-volume ratios place NP atoms under high EM confinement that by the Planck law precludes the NP from having the heat capacity to conserve heat by an increase in temperature. Instead, simple QED conserves heat by creating UV radiation from NPs in the vaccine that damages the DNA of neurons to cause Autism consistent with the opinion of President Trump. Protecting the US citizen against neuro-degenerative disease requires US legislation to prohibit the use of NPs in vaccines and GM foods.

Abstract

Autism from NP's is a risk [1,.2] to the health of US citizens, not only to the newborn in vaccines, but also in baby. NPs stands for nanoparticles. Similarly, NPs in GM food are risk to the elderly for Alzheimer's. GM stands for genetically modified. The CDC is in charge of recommending the vaccination schedule for Autism in US children, which has grown by more than 6,000% as shown in the thumbnail. CDC stands for Center of Disease Control. The CDC monitors vaccine safety and tracks the number of children with Autism in the US. In 2016 after the US election, a group of senior CDC scientists filed [3] an ethics complaint alleging the CDC was influenced by corporate and political interests. Collusion is suggested by the departure of the head of CDC —  Julie Gerberding —to be head of the vaccine division of Merck. The scientists argued the CDC misrepresented the rise in Autism rates since the late 1980 's - a view consistent with the just elected President Trump who is quoted as saying: "When I was growing up, Autism wasn't really a factor," he [Trump] said. "And now all of a sudden, it's an epidemic. Everybody has their theory, and my theory is the shots. They're getting these massive injections at one time. I think it's the vaccinations." President Trump is right about Autism as UV radiation from NPs in vaccinations damages brain cells, but he should go further and include NPs in baby food. For the elderly, protection from Alzheimer's requires banning NPs in GM food. Although the US Congress has not acted in banning NPs, Trump should encourage future legislation to be enacted that bans NPs not only from vaccines, but also from baby and GM foods.

Tuesday, July 17 , 11:00-11:30

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Keynote Speaker R.M.G. Rajapakse photo

Keynote Forum

R.M.G. Rajapakse

University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Title

Industrially-viable Nanotechnology Research Activities

Biography

Prof. R.M.G Rajapkse has 32 years of continuous service at the Department of Chemistry, where he taught 26 years (excluding 5 years of study leave from 1985 to 1991).  His specialty is in the broad areas of Physical Chemistry and Nanotechnology. He has taught almost all course units in Physical Chemistry in different years, but my main teaching modules are Basic Electrochemistry, Advanced Electrochemistry, Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis, Basic Polymer Chemistry, Advanced Polymer Chemistry, and Industrial Chemistry: Elementary Chemical Engineering, Chemical Technology, Physical Chemistry Laboratory and Advanced Physical Chemistry Laboratory. Depending on the need, which has arisen in some academic years, he has taught courses such as Chemical Thermodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, Advanced Materials and Devices and Molecular Symmetry. He has supervised at least two final year research projects in each academic year and three final year projects in most of the years. These research studies have contributed to some publications in indexed journals, peer-reviewed local journals and communications at various scientific forums such as the Sri Lanka Association for the Advancement of Science (SLAAS), Institute of Chemistry (Ceylon) (I. Chem.), the Peradeniya University Research Sessions (PURSE) and International Conferences in Nnotechnology. These projects were on various disciplines such as Electrochemistry, Electronically Conducting Polymers, Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites, Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Stainless Steel Prostheses for Orthopaedic Applications, Value Addition to Sri Lankan Natural Resources, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, Advanced Textile Materials such as Textiles with Antimicrobial, Self-cleaning and Antistatic Properties, Anticorrosive Nanocomposite Coatings and Targeted Drug Delivery using Nanomterials. 

 

Abstract

RMGR Research, at the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, spans a horizons of R&D activities, in the Broad Area of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. This include (1) Nanomaterials in Energy Conversion and Storage, (2) Transparent Conducting Oxide Nanomaterials, (3) Conversion of Local Minerals into Highly Value-added Nanomaterials, (4) Novel and Low-cost Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Half-reaction of Fuel Cells, (5) Advanced and Intelligent Textiles and Gloves, (6) Targeted Drug-delivery, (7) Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Origin Prevailing in Sri lLnka and (8) Custom-made Prostheses for Orthopaedic Transplants. Theme (1) research includes the Developments of Transparent Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, Low-cost Counter Electrodes based on Non-Platinum Catalysts, Perovskites-sensitized Extremely Thin Absorber Solar Cells, Photon Upconversion as a means to Harvest Infrared Radiation. In the Theme (2) we investigate the fabrication of thin films of transparent, electronically conducting oxides such as Fluoride-doped Tin oxide (FTO) Nanomaterials and Ag(0) and Nb(V)-doped TiO2 Nanomaterials and Transparent Thin Films of Interconnected Nanoparticles of Semiconductors such as TiO2, ZnO, SnO2 etc. As per the 3rd Thematic Area, we investigate the Preparation, Characterization and Applications of Precipitated Calcium carbonate, Magnesium oxide and Magnesium hydroxide Nanomaterials from Impure Dolomite, Hydroxyapatite Nanomaterials from Local Apatite for Making Biocompatible, Osteo-integrating, Non-toxic and Non-corroding Prostheses for Orthopaedic Transplants and the Conversion of Natural Graphite into Value-added Products such as Graphene, Graphene oxide. Theme (4) research activities comprise the Development of very Low-cost, Clay-Polymer-based Catalysts to replace prohibitively expensive Pt/Rh catalysts used in fuel cells. Development of Super-hydrophobic and Stain-resistant Textiles, Antimicrobial Textiles, Anti-pilling Textiles and Fire-retardant Gloves comprises the Theme (5) research. We develop Impregnated Drugs in Hollow and Porous Calcium carbonate or Porous Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles for Targeted-delivery and Slow-release as examples for our Theme (6) research activities. Theme (7) research is based on Analysis, Revisiting and Reviewing Existing Hypotheses for Causes of the Disease and Delivering Invited Lectures on CKDU Revisited and Serving in the Panels of the Coordination Secretariat for Science and Technology on CKDU. As per Theme (8) research activities we have been pioneered in Establishing Multidisciplinary Research Group on Manufacturing Custom-made Prostheses for Orthopaedic Transplants. Two such Prostheses designed, developed and manufactured were successfully transplanted in needy patients. Third Prosthesis is in Preparation and we are now engaged in Research on Novel Methods to Tackle Brittle Bone Disease through Telescopic Prostheses. This presentation is based on review of these research highlights.

 

Tuesday, July 17 , 11:30-12:00

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Keynote Speaker Yong Lei photo

Keynote Forum

Yong Lei

Technical University of Ilmenau, Germany

Title

Functional nanostructure arrays realized by templates for energy conversion and storage devices

Biography

Yong Lei is a Chair Professor at the Technical University of Ilmenau in Germany. His research interests are template-based nanostructuring, energy-related devices (sodium-ion battery, supercapacitors and PEC cells) and optoelectronics of functional nanostructures. So far he has authored 148 papers, many are published in high impact journals, such as Nature Nanotechnology, Nature Communications, JACS, Angewandte Chemie, Advanced Materials, Advanced Functional Materials, ACS Nano, Advanced Energy Materials, Energy & Environmental Science, Chemical Society Reviews, Progress in Materials Science. Prof. Lei received a few prestigious projects in Europe and Germany: ERC Starting Grant, ERC Proof of Concept Grant, and BMBF ZIK project.

 

Abstract

Functional nanostructures have drawn intensive attention with the development of miniaturization of modern and future devices. Realization of such nanostructures presents an important task for nanotechnology research and device applications. To address this challenge, template-based method provides a perfect approach owing to the geometrical characteristics of the templates. We have developed template-based nanostructuring techniques using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanopore arrays and polystyrene spheres with scalable, parallel and fast processes.[1] Employing these techniques, three-dimensional and surface nanostructures have been fabricated. The obtained nanostructures possess large-scale arrayed configuration, high structural density, perfect regularity and cost-effectiveness, and are highly desirable for constructing energy conversion and storage devices, including solar water splitting,[2-6] supercapacitors[7-9] and rechargeable sodium-ion batteries.[10-13] The device performances demonstrated that the obtained nanostructures benefit these applications through the precise control over the structural features enabled by the geometrical characteristics of the templates.[14,15] These achievements indicate the high potential and importance of template-based nanostructuring techniques for both basic research and device applications. Especially, we proposed recently a multiple nanostructuring concept using a binary-pore AAO template,[16] indicating a new perspective of template-based nanostructuring for device functionalization.

 

Tuesday, July 17 , 12:00-12:30

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Keynote Speaker Ajay Kumar Mishra photo

Keynote Forum

Ajay Kumar Mishra

University of South Africa, South Africa

Title

Bio-nanocomposites for environmental remediation

Biography

Ajay Kumar Mishra is a full Professor at University of South Africa, Florida Science Campus, South Africa. Prof. Mishra is currently working for University of South Africa as “Full Professor” since January 2015. He is also working as “Adjunct Professor” at Jiangsu University, China. His research interests include synthesis nanomaterials/composites, smart materials, and water research. He has delivered a number of including Plenary/Keynote/Invited Lectures. For his outstanding research profile, he was awarded a number of international awards. Prof. Mishra also served as Associate Editor as well as member of the editorial board of many peer-reviewed international journals. He has edited several books by the renowned publishers and also reviewer of many international journals. He is serving as member advisory board of a number of international scientific societies, conferences and workshops.         
 

Abstract

Water is the most vital substance and valuable resource for human civilization. Access to fresh and potable drinking water is regarded as one of the most essential humanitarian goals. Water contamination, due to the discharge of untreated and partially treated industrial wastewaters into the ecosystem has caused a serious environmental challenge and has attracted an immense concern in many countries. A number of pollutants that are of primary concern are biodegradable waste, dyes, hazardous and toxic chemicals, fluoride, phosphates and nitrates, metals, sediments, radioactive pollutants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Therefore, to solve these environmental challenges, a numerous materials including clays, chitosan based composites, hydrogels, etc., have been used to remove these pollutants from water. The present keynote lecture will be focused on remediation of such contaminants by using various bio-nanocomposites.

 

Tuesday, July 17 , 12:30-13:15

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Keynote Speaker Nikolaus Stolterfoht photo

Keynote Forum

Nikolaus Stolterfoht

Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Germany

Title

Milestones of charged particle guiding through nanocapillaries in insulating polymers

Biography

N. Stolterfoht has completed his PhD at the Free University Berlin (Germany) and in 1970 became a group leader at the Hahn-Meitner Institut Berlin where he habilitated. In the late 80th he became full professor at the University of Caen (France). In the 90th he returned to Berlin at Helmholtz-Zentrum where he served as senior scientist until being emeritus. He has 296 publications in reputed journals including a book with Springer.          

Abstract

After the first observation that keV ions are guided through insulating nano­capillaries [1], the topic has received consid­erable attention during the past decade. The essential property of the capillary guiding is a self-organizing process, which governs the charge deposition inside the capillaries as shown in Fig. 1. With increasing deposition of the ions, the charge patch increases until the electrostatic field is large enough to deflect the ions (panel b). At equilibrium, the ions are guided maintaining their incident charge state (panel c).

Milestones of the field are summarized in accordance with a recent review over the studies of capillary guiding [2]. Experiments are described providing emphasis to the guiding of highly charged ions in the keV energy range. Recent experiments with insulating nano- and micro-capillaries are presented. Similarities as well as significant differences between the capillary types are pointed out. Moreover, significant differences between guiding mechanisms of ions and electrons are discussed. Apart from the experimental studies, theoretical concepts of the capillary guiding are presented [3]. Single tapered capillaries are discussed involv­ing an enhance­ment of the beam density and the production of a microbeam for various applications including biological matter. Altogether, it is shown that studies of capillary guiding revealed several novel phenomena

 

  • Nanophotonics | Cancer Nanotechnology | Nano Pharmaceuticals | Nanotoxicity | Recent Innovations

Tuesday, July 17, 14:00-14:20

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker Amany Elnahrawy photo

Session Introduction

Amany Elnahrawy

National Research Centre, Egypt

Title

Structural, magnetic and antibacterial assessment of Ce co-doped Sr–Mn–ZnO nanoparticles

Biography

Amany M ElNahrawy (Arabic: أمانى محمد النحراوى‎; Born 1973)-Egypt. She is currently Assistant Professor of Solid State Physics -National Research Center-Egypt. She has participated a number of scientific projects. She has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract

A facile sol gel method was adopted for the synthesis of Ce co-doped Sr–Mn–ZnO nanoparticles. The effect of incorporation Ce ions on the structural and magnetic properties of the CSMZO has been characterized by different characterization technique. The XRD and HRTEM/HRSEM show high crystallinity degree of the CSMZO thin films. The analysis using FTIR, UV-vis and VSM reveal that the nanocomposites showed well-behaved absorption bands and well magnetic behavior at room temperature. Correspondingly, the synthesized nanocomposites exhibited good antibacterial and antifungal activity.

 

Tuesday, July 17, 14:20-14:40

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker Abdeen Mustafa Omer photo

Abdeen Mustafa Omer

Energy Research Institute (ERI), Nottingham, UK

Title

Heat Exchangers Technology And Applications In Heat Exchanger Engineering

Biography

Abdeen Mustafa Omer (BSc, MSc, PhD) is an Associate Researcher at Energy Research Institute (ERI). He obtained both his PhD degree in the Built Environment and Master of Philosophy degree in Renewable Energy Technologies from the University of Nottingham. He is qualified Mechanical Engineer with a proven track record within the water industry and renewable energy technologies. He has been graduated from University of El Menoufia, Egypt, BSc in Mechanical Engineering. His previous experience involved being a member of the research team at the National Council for Research/Energy Research Institute in Sudan and working director of research and development for National Water Equipment Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Sudan. He has been listed in the book WHO’S WHO in the World 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010. He has published over 300 papers in peer-reviewed journals, 100 review articles, 5 books and 100 chapters in books.

Abstract

Over the years, all parts of a commercial refrigerator, such as the compressor, heat exchangers, refrigerant, and packaging, have been improved considerably due to the extensive research and development efforts carried out by academia and industry. However, the achieved and anticipated improvement in conventional refrigeration technology are incremental since this technology is already nearing its fundamentals limit of energy efficiency is described is ‘magnetic refrigeration’ which is an evolving cooling technology. The word ‘green’ designates more than a colour. It is a way of life, one that is becoming more and more common throughout the world. An interesting topic on ‘sustainable technologies for a greener world’ details about what each technology is and how it achieves green goals. Recently, conventional chillers using absorption technology consume energy for hot water generator but absorption chillers carry no energy saving. With the aim of providing a single point solution for this dual purpose application, a product is launched but can provide simultaneous chilling and heating using its vapour absorption technology with 40% saving in heating energy. Using energy efficiency and managing customer energy use has become an integral and valuable exercise. The reason for this is green technology helps to sustain life on earth. This not only applies to humans but to plants, animals and the rest of the ecosystem. Energy prices and consumption will always be on an upward trajectory. In fact, energy costs have steadily risen over last decade and are expected to carry on doing so as consumption grows. Refrigerants such as hydrochloroflurocarbons (HCFCs) are present in the ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems and can pose a threat to the environment through being toxic, flammable or having a high global warming potential.

However, new types and blends of refrigerant with minimal negative impacts are being developed. A correctly fitted system will also greatly reduce the potential for leakage, which is why using a professional installer is highly recommended. Significant CO2 savings can be gained by displacing fossil fuels. Even compared to the most efficient gas or oil condensing boilers, a well-designed heat pump with COP of 3-4 will reduce emissions by 30-35%. Further carbon savings can be made if the electricity used to power the pump comes from a renewable energy source such as photovoltaic or a renewable electricity tariff. Also, measures can be taken to reduce the impact of pollution from using grid electricity generated through fossil fuel. For example, one can purchase dual tariff green electricity from a number of suppliers. However, even if ordinary grid electricity is used to run the compressor, the system will still produce less CO2 emissions than even the most efficient condensing gas or oil boiler with the same output. The term “vapour compression refrigeration” is somewhat of a misnomer, it would be more accurately described as 'vapour suction refrigeration'. Vapour compression is used to reclaim the refrigerant and is more aptly applied to heat pumps. Vapour compression refrigeration exploits the fact that the boiling temperature of a liquid is intimately tied to its pressure. Generally, when the pressure on a liquid is raised its boiling (and condensing) temperature rises, and vice-versa. This is known as the saturation pressure-temperature relationship.

 

 

Tuesday, July 17, 14:40-15:00

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker Sahir Sadek photo

Sahir Sadek

British University in Egypt, Egypt

Title

Pd nanoparticles supported on copper oxide prepared via microwave – assisted synthesis: an efficient catalyst for suzuki cross-coupling

Biography

 

Prof. Shahir Sadek earned his B.Sc. in Chemical Engineering in 1971 from Military Technical College (MTC), followed by minimum CSc. in 1977 from Brno Academy (VAAZ) , CSSR. Prof. Shahir earned his Ph.D. in June 1981 from the University of Orsay, Paris, France, in Organic chemistry.  He worked as a lecturer, associate professor and professor in the Chemical Engineering Branch at the Military Technical College in Egypt from 1981 to 1996.  Prof. Shahir led the chemical Engineering Department in Higher Technological Institute, 10th of Ramadan City (HTI) from 1996 to 2004. In September 2004, He worked as Associate Dean for October branch of HTI, Associate Dean for Education & student affairs in HTI, and as Dean of HTI till October 2012. In September 2013 Prof. Shahir Joined the British University in Egypt as Head of Chemical Engineering and Vice Dean for research, postgraduate studies and Community Services till now.

 

Abstract

Transition metal nanoparticles have been widely investigated as a potentially advanced pathway in catalysis field due to their distinctive properties. The precise optimization through controlling the particle size is one of the key factors to obtain unique physical and chemical properties. Recently, Copper based nanoparticles have a huge impact in the field of catalysis research as they have been tested in several major reactions such as Suzuki-Miyaura cross–coupling.

The previously mentioned research studies have revealed the high catalytic activity of metallic and bimetallic nanoparticles through using copper oxide as an ideal support in C-C cross-coupling reactions which are considered as one of the most relevant processes in Organic Synthesis. The importance of those kinds of nanomaterials are not only because they are covering the research area of cross-coupling reactions which are widely used in several strategic industries like cosmetic, pharmacy, agriculture, and natural products; but also as they cover other potential applications in sensors, catalysis and energy conversion.

It is important to notice that there is also a main advantage of using copper oxide as a support as it significantly increase the surface area of the active ingredient of the used catalyst, hence causing a huge enhancement of the contact between reactants and catalyst to be nearly like that of the homogeneous catalysts. This also led to some innovative ideas regarding the use of nano-catalysis for green chemistry development including the possibility of using the concept of microwave assisted synthesis combined with nano-catalysis.

In this manuscript, we report on a green efficient method to prepare highly active Pd nanoparticles supported on copper oxide as a highly efficient catalyst for potential use in Suzuki cross–coupling.

Tuesday, July 17, 15:00-15:20

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker Rahul Hajare photo

Rahul Hajare

Rajgad Dnyanpeeth's College of Pharmacy, India

Title

GC method developments and solutions

Biography

 He is affiliated to National AIDS Research Institute Pune, India. Dr.Hajare has won World Academic Championship-2017 in Pharmacy (Antiretroviral Therapy) and certified as Fellow, Directorate of Pharmacy, IASR (Lifetime Membership). He is a formerly post-doctoral fellow of Indian Council of Medical Research New Delhi. He has M.Pharm, Masters in Quality Assurance from Nagpur University. He has completed his PhD at the age of 32 years from Vinayaka Missions University.

 

Abstract

Acceptance of high quality product is first choice of vendors and it must be in reasonable cost, pharmaceutical impurity could not be a facility in pharmaceutical product, it has been compromising the effect of drugs. Due to ever –increasing failure rates, high cost, unsatisfactory safety profile and limited efficacy associated with production of drug key intermediate for active pharmaceutical ingredient and market cost differ by International Pharmacopeial standard. We invented economical new technology for estimation of residual solvents by ultra-capillary GC methods.The synthesis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) normally consists of several synthetic steps. Process-related impurities can be formed at any step and could ultimately appear in the final drug substance, particularly in the scale-up drug candidates. Impurities must be controlled because of their potential toxicity. Impurity control is a continuing concern of regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. The use of specialized holding technology, time management and detection methods. Researchers have reported that OVIs with these experiences are more difficult to treat; many do not access treatment and those who do, frequently do not stay because of difficulty maintaining helping solvents coordination. The purpose of this study is to describe the experience of seeking help for residual solvents dependency by manufactures with a history of OVIs in the context in which it occurs. Methodology & Technical Orientation: GC-2010 plus ultra-trace capillary column applications chemicals and reagents water, methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, methylene chloride, chloroform, 1, 4-dioxane. Solvents were authorized from sigma-aldrich Company (MO, USA).

 

Tuesday, July 17, 15:20-15:40

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker P.L.J.B. Liyanage photo

P.L.J.B. Liyanage

University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Title

Encapsulation of the anticancer drug cisplatin in titanium dioxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery and slow release

Biography

Liyanage P.L.J.B. has completed her BSc. Degree in Chemistry honors, from the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka and is currently employing as a demonstrator in the Department of Chemistry, University of Peradeniya, while seeking for graduate admission.

Abstract

In the recent past, much progress has been seen in the use of nanoparticles for efficient drug delivery, so as to cause minimum damage towards the internal organs and healthy cells while targeting the drug to the appropriate body part. For this research, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been considered for the targeted drug delivery, due to the presence of large amounts of Ilmenite (FeO.TiO2) reserves in Pulmuddai, Sri Lanka. Moreover, this research has been motivated by the biocompatibility, stability under a large pH range, ability to enhance bone bonding and good photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide. The nanoparticles can be combined with pH selective or even MRI active functionalities to monitor and target them towards the tumor cells. Metal based anticancer drugs play a major role in chemotherapy. The anticancer drug cisplatin, Pt(NH3)2Cl2, has been used to incorporate into the porous nanoparticles. In DNA bending, cisplatin losses its Cl- ligands in exchange of the N atoms in Adenine and Guanine, which then inhibits the cell division process. Cisplatin bonds tightly with the N centers as they balance the charge more effectively. In this study, the nano-porous TiO2 was synthesized using several methods, such as using zinc oxide or micelles to create the pores. However, the most efficient method was by the hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP), in the presence of the polysaccharide, agar, to induce the porosity. The temperature, at which the agar incorporated TiO2 nanoparticles are calcines at, was carefully determined so as to not change the phase from anatase to rutile. The cationic, biocompatible surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium tosylate (CTAT) has been used to prevent the agglomeration of the nanoparticle and to stabilize them in the solvent. The anticancer drug was encapsulated, by a physisorbtion mechanism, where the drug was allowed to physisorb on to the nano-porous TiO2. Determination of the encapsulation efficiency and the release kinetics were done with the aid of Atomic Emission Spectrascopy (AES). The drug release kinetics were studied under thermostatic conditions (37ËšC). the investigation of the elemental composition, crystallinity and morphology was done using X-ray Florescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images were obtained for the nano-porous TiO2 nanoparticles and the encapsulated products. For more accurate elemental composition data, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was used. The SEM images obtained determined that the nanoparticles were spherical in shape and the particle size analysis gave an average particle size of (94.3±0.1) nm. The XRD data suggested that the TiO2 was in the anatase form as expected. The XRF, EDX, FT-IR studies revealed the presence of the anticancer drug, cisplatin, in the TiO2 nanoparticles. Furthermore, the AES data obtained, showed that the encapsulation efficiency of the drug is 80.4%. However, the release kinetics suggested minute release percentages, even after 24 hours, irrespective of the pH of the medium. Therefore, the incorporation of the anticancer drug, cisplatin, in to TiO2 nanoparticles may not be applicable to release the drug selectively under acidic conditions of the cancer cells.

Tuesday, July 17, 15:40-16:00

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker Tharalamini Piumnil Gamagedara photo

Tharalamini Piumnil Gamagedara

University of Peradeniy, Sri Lanka

Title

Effects of hydroxyapatite –polymethyl methacrylate nanocomposites on human red cell indices and serum proteins

Biography

Dr. T.P. Gamagedara (B.Sc. honours degree specilized in Chemistry, Ph.D., University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka) is a Lecturer in Biochemistry and Analytical Chemistry of the Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Her research interests include hydroxyapatite-polymer nanocomposites, bone implants, conversion of natural minerals to value-added products and produced over 25 publications/communications to her credit. 

 

Abstract

HA – PMMA nanocomposites can be used as a potential biomaterial for orthopedic applications. The wear NPs would be prone to bind with proteins to form protein-particle complexes and to interact with visible components in the blood. Therefore, this study was focused to determine the effects of HA – PMMA nanocomposites (10% HA) on human red cell indices and serum proteins by in vitro method. Blood samples and serum samples of healthy adults were mixed with the nanocomposites and incubated. Red cell indices were calculated using hemoglobin level, packed cell volume and red blood cell counts which were determined by cyanomethemoglobin, microhematocrit and counting chamber methods respectively and serum total protein and serum albumin were analyzed by using Biuret method and colorimetric Bromocresol green methods respectively. Descriptive statistical method and t paired test ware used to analyze data. The study shows HAP-PMMA nanocomposites interact with RBCs, hemoglobin (Hb) and serum proteins. There was a significant decrease in the values of MCV, MCH, MCHC, serum total proteins and serum albumin due to the effect of the nanocomposite. In addition, shape and size of red cells were changed. Therefore, there can be an effect on hemocompatibity by releasing particles of nanocomposites to the blood stream. Within the study, importance of in vitro tests for evaluation of the compatibility of nanocomposites with human blood could be demonstrated. 

 

  • Nanomedicine | Nano Pharmaceuticals | Recent Innovations | Nanomechanics

Wednesday, July 18, 10:05-10:20

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker Wijekoon SHDP photo

Session Introduction

Wijekoon SHDP

University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Title

Antibacterial drug ciprofloxacin encapsulation in reduced graphite oxide (Rgo)-zinc oxide-poly(Ethylene Glycol) nanocomposite for effective activity

Biography

Dilan holds a B. Sc. degree in Chemistry and molecular biology from University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. He is currently following his M.Sc in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in Postgraduate Institute of Science University of Peradeniya.  He is developing various methods to prepare car batteries and efficient electrodes for industrial purposes. Other than that he is involving in researches in material sciences at Physical Research Laboratory University of Peradeniya        

Abstract

Ciprofloxacin (CF) [1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7-(piperazin-1-yl)-quinoline-3-carboxylic acid] is a fluoroquinolone-type antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections which include bone and joint infections, intra-abdominal infections, certain types of infectious diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, skin infections, typhoid fever, and urinary tract infections, among others either on its own or in combination with other antibiotics such as Metronidazole. CF can be administered orally or intravenously. Common side effects of CF are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and rash. CF increases the risk of tendon rupture and worsening muscle weakness in people with the neurological disorder such as myasthenia gravis. Most of these side effects and the dosage of the can be reduced and the efficacy can be enhanced when the drug is encapsulated in a suitable carrier and is allowed to release slowly and steadily only in required minimum dosage over a long period. In this research, CF was encapsulated in reduced graphite oxide (rGO)-Zinc Oxide-Poly(Ethylene Glycol) nanocomposite in order to prepare a CF slow and steady release formulation. Successfully synthesized the nanocomposite, encapsulation of the antibacterial drug CP was carried out in the research work. The product obtained was characterized using XRD, SEM, EDAX and FT-IR and the supernatant was characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy SEM images, XRD, XRF and FTIR data show that the synthesis of the nanocomposite and encapsulation of the drug in the nanocomposite. In-vitro bacterial cell studies show that the effective bacterial inhibition has been occurred due to synthesized nanocomposite.

 

Wednesday, July 18, 10:20-10:35

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker C. A. Thennakoon photo

C. A. Thennakoon

University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Title

Hydrophobicity imparted from self-assembled stearic acid molecules on Tio2 nano-structures formed on textile surfaces through ultraviolet irradiation

Biography

C.A. Thennakoon is completed B.Sc(Applied sciences) and currently following for his Ph.D degree from university of peradeniya, He has training and research experiences in IISc, India and university of Brescia in Italy. And he has worked in several industries as a researcher and published more than 20 conference proceedings in local and international conference. And he has been working as a teaching assistant at postgraduate institute of science, university of peradeniya

 

Abstract

In recent years, hydrophobic layers formed on various surfaces have attracted a great deal of scientific and commercial attention due to their self-cleaning property with high water-repellent ability. TiO2 nanostructures, particularly, vertically-aligned 1-D nanomaterials (nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, etc.) with self-assembled long chain fatty acids such as stearic acid are commonly used to impart these properties on surfaces such as glass, shoes, textiles, gloves, and so on.  Herein, we report a simple method to increase the hydrophobicity by increasing the number of self-assembled stearic acid molecules around TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 nanomaterials were formed on textile surfaces by dip-coating from a TiO2 nanoparticulate dispersion formed from steam-assisted reaction of titanium isopropoxide.   The treated fabrics were then exposed to UV light (λ = 256 nm) for different times varying from 0 to 40 minutes and dried at 120 ËšC for 10 minutes. The U- irradiated, TiO2-treated fabrics were then dipped in a solution of stearic acid at 30 ËšC for 1 hr, and dried at 50 ËšC. Hydrophobicity of the textile surfaces were evaluated by measuring contact angles and roll off angles of each sample. Crystal structure of TiO2 was characterized by X-ray deffractometry (XRD), surface morphologies by scanning electron microscope (SEM). According to the XRD data, TiO2 is composed of anatase form. Contact angles increased in the order 140Ëš, 146Ëš, 151Ëš, 154Ëš and 161Ëš with increased time of UV irradiation.

 

Wednesday, July 18, 10:55-11:10

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker Gayan Sasanka Nirodha Thilakarathna photo

Gayan Sasanka Nirodha Thilakarathna

University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Title

In vitro evaluation of biocompatibility of spherical-shaped calcined hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized via calcium sucrets method

Biography

Gayan Sasanka Nirodha Thilakarathna holds a B. Sc. Degree in Chemistry and Biology stream from University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, and currently he is reading for his M.Phil. Degree attached to the Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya. His research focuses on Novel method of porous Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for Biocompatibility applications and is carried out under the supervision of the co-authors of this abstract. He has a few Communications at International Conferences to his credit and he won the Best Presenter Award of the 4th International Conference in Nanotechnology held in Colombo, Sri Lanka and also a similar Award with a Cash Prize from the Mineral Symposium held in Colombo, Sri Lank, both in 2017.

 

Abstract

There are numerous bio-materials, such as metals, metal alloys, carbon-based materials, polymers, ceramics, and composites of the above materials used in biomedical applications as bone cements, bone fillers and implants, though all of them have advantages and drawbacks. These materials that are used to fill and reconstruct bone defects have many limitations, due to unfavorable corrosion properties, improper stress distribution and adverse tissue reactions.

Recently, throughout the world, biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HA) nanomaterials have been widely used in a broad range of biomedical applications. However, current synthesis techniques of biocompatible HA nanomaterials are very expensive. Therefore, we have developed a simple and cost-effective method to synthesize HA having spherical porous structures with chemical compositions closely related to the mineral phase of the human bone so as to impart osteo-conductive properties. These products may be used in biomedical applications at low-cost.

These nanoparticles were prepared by precipitating from a precursor solution containing calcium sucrate and ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate, at a Ca:P mole ratio of 1.67:1, at room temperature. The obtained product was analyzed for it’s crystallinity, crystallite size, morphology, and composition, by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic techniques. Analyses were also done after calcining the respective products, soon after their synthesis, for 3 h, at 700 °C. The calcined samples always produced spherical nanoparticles of essentially the same diameter, between 90 nm and 100 nm, which does not change due to aging or by changing preparative-temperature in the range from 20-90 °C.

Biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and bio-functionality of these materials are currently being under investigation to make sure their suitability for biomedical application. HA nanoparticles are nontoxic according to the cytotoxicity results which confirm their potential usage in biomedical applications.  MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, Alamarblue assay for cell proliferation, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay for cell differentiation and SEM analysis for the cell morphology studies confirmed that the synthesized HA nanoparticles are nontoxic.

 

 

Wednesday, July 18, 11:10-11:25

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker Rajapakshe RBSD photo

Rajapakshe RBSD

University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Title

Synthesis and charaxterization of acidity-triggered, cisplatin encapsulated, slow-release zinc oxide targeted drug delivery nanocomposite for cancer treatement

Biography

 

Cisplatin is a frequently used anticancer drug with a cis configuration that facilitates the covalently binding of the coordination complex to DNA strands and thus crosslinking the DNA strands triggering the cells to die in a programmed manner. However, cisplatin is associated with several side effects which can be either reduced or overcome if cisplatin could be encapsulated in a suitable host material and directed towards cancer cells in a targeted manner. To achieve these targets, we have prepared porous nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) and encapsulated cisplatin in them and studied their release kinetics in buffered solutions of defined pH values. Since cancerous cells are more acidic compared to normal cells and that ZnO is stable in neutral pH media while decompose slowly in low acidic conditions, it can be a highly suitable host to release drug slowly only at the vicinity of the cancer cells. We developed a novel surfactant-assisted method to synthesize porous nanoparticles of ZnO. The encapsulation of cisplatin was characterised by XRF, SEM, FT-IR and XRD studies. The release kinetics of cisplatin at different pH values was investigated by measuring the amount of Pt released as a function of time using ICP-AES. It shows the release of cisplatin is pH dependent and there is hardly any release of cisplatin at neutral and basic pH values. As such, at physiological pH of blood and that of healthy cells cisplatin is not released while at mildly acidic pH values of cancer cells cisplatin is slowly released.

Abstract

Cisplatin is a frequently used anticancer drug with a cis configuration that facilitates the covalently binding of the coordination complex to DNA strands and thus crosslinking the DNA strands triggering the cells to die in a programmed manner. However, cisplatin is associated with several side effects which can be either reduced or overcome if cisplatin could be encapsulated in a suitable host material and directed towards cancer cells in a targeted manner. To achieve these targets, we have prepared porous nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) and encapsulated cisplatin in them and studied their release kinetics in buffered solutions of defined pH values. Since cancerous cells are more acidic compared to normal cells and that ZnO is stable in neutral pH media while decompose slowly in low acidic conditions, it can be a highly suitable host to release drug slowly only at the vicinity of the cancer cells. We developed a novel surfactant-assisted method to synthesize porous nanoparticles of ZnO. The encapsulation of cisplatin was characterised by XRF, SEM, FT-IR and XRD studies. The release kinetics of cisplatin at different pH values was investigated by measuring the amount of Pt released as a function of time using ICP-AES. It shows the release of cisplatin is pH dependent and there is hardly any release of cisplatin at neutral and basic pH values. As such, at physiological pH of blood and that of healthy cells cisplatin is not released while at mildly acidic pH values of cancer cells cisplatin is slowly released.

Wednesday, July 18, 11:25-11:40

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker Zajid AMA photo

Zajid AMA

University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Title

Dye-sensitized self-cleaning and anti-microbial fabric based on nanoparticles of Tio2 adsorbed and dyed cotton

Biography

ZAJID A.M.A.  Is reading for his PhD from Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya Sri lanka. He is currently working in MAS Holdings, Sri Lanka. He has published more than 25 abstracts in local and international conferences and has completed his masters from Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya Sri lanka.          

Abstract

This research has the distinct advantage of absorption of solar radiation in the entire visible region and dye sensitization of wide band gap semiconductors to separate electron-hole pairs which would otherwise recombine without being able to do a useful work. The electrons injected into the conduction band of TiO2 are expected to reduce oxygen giving reactive oxygen species which would then destroy the stain and microbes present on the cloth. The oxidized dye molecules are brought back to their neutral state by injecting electrons from the stain molecules and microbial cells and thereby effecting their oxidative degradation. This novel concept of using dye sensitized self-cleaning fabrics makes use both dye and the semiconductor particles for stain removal and microbial cell destruction, whereas those self-cleaning fabrics developed so far only make use the electron-hole pairs separated in the semiconductor particles, usually TiO2, due to ultraviolet excitation of valence band electrons to the conduction band of the semiconductor. Most customers expect the garments to perform minimum of 30 washes, every time an average garment washed with full wash load, the amount of water used for its lifetime is 75 gallons. 90% of the stains can be removed from the clothes only at 40° C, and the power consumption due to washing for garment is around 5.9 kW h. These developed self-cleaning fabrics can address the issues of power and water savings, thus they would be helpful in a sustainable manner.

 

Wednesday, July 18, 11:40-11:55

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker WGTN Premachandra photo

WGTN Premachandra

University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Title

Evaluation of osteoblast-like cell response to hydroxyapatite nano-particles deposited on self-formed Tio2 thin layer on Ti surface.

Biography

WGTN Premachandra has completed her BSc. Special degree in Molecular biology and Biotechnology from University of Peradeniya and currently reading for her PhD. in biomaterials at Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. At present, she is mainly involved in evaluating the biocompatibility of different nano-structured materials which can be used as synthetic bone substitutes.

Abstract

Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles that mimic natural HA are widely used as coatings on prostheses to repair, reconstruct and substitute human bones. However, for developing countries as Sri Lanka, the accessibility of most of these materials is limited due to the high cost of both raw materials and processing. Therefore, Wijesinghe et al. (2014) have prepared Sri Lankan origin HA nano-particles through atomized spray pyrolysis technique and have successfully prepared Ti surfaces with a binder TiO2 layer and HA layer on the TiO2 surfaces, which would be a simple material with high economic value for orthopaedic applications. In order to evaluate the appropriateness to utilize in the production of bone implants, this material was evaluated for cytotoxicity and biocompatibility (i.e.: morphology, proliferation and differentiation) in-vitro using osteoblast-like cells (HOS). The results of this study demonstrate that the surfaces of Ti with TiO2 thin layer, coated with HA did not elicit any toxic substance which would bring deleterious effects to HOS cells and have supported cell adhesion once the cells are in contact with the material surfaces (Image 1).  Moreover, cells attached to the surfaces retained their typical polygonal morphology and osteoblast phenotype, while undergoing the developmental stages of HOS cells (proliferation and differentiation) successfully, confirming the biocompatibility of the material.

In conclusion, this material will be a promising alternative for the production of synthetic bone substitutes with high potential for future developments in load bearing as well as non-load bearing orthopaedic applications.

 

Wednesday, July 18, 11:55-12:10

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker Viranga Wimalasiri photo

Viranga Wimalasiri

University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Title

Preparation of porous keratin nano-particles from human hair as a carrier for encapsulating anticancer drug paclitaxel (Taxol) for Ph-sensitive targeted drug delivery

Biography

WIMALASIRI V.W. successfully completed his B.Sc. Chemistry Special Degree from University of Peradeniya. He is currently employed as a temporary demonstrator in the Department of Chemistry and seeking for graduate admission. He has published one abstract in an international conference during his undergraduate career.

Abstract

Paclitaxel (Taxol) is a plant based taxane alkaloid which has been in use as a broad spectrum anticancer drug since 1993. Anticancer drugs usually exhibit a variety of side effects, but encapsulation of the drug in a suitable host material minimizes the side effects while improving the effectiveness of the drug due to its slow release only at the target. The objective of this research is to develop a simple, but effective mechanism for preparation of Porous Keratin NanoParticles (PKNP) using human hair as the raw material. Human hair, a waste product once cut, contains a structural protein, keratin. Preparation of keratin for medical applications is a productive and an attractive way of utilizing waste hair. In this study, PKNP was produced from human hair by dissolving in a basic medium at high temperature followed by re-precipitation in an acidic medium. For PKNP production, preliminary trials were carried out using different NaOH concentrations ranging from 0.10 M to 1.0 M to determine the optimum concentration of NaOH for keratin extraction. Keratin extracted into 0.5 mol dm-3 NaOH with 0.5 mol dm-3 NaHSO3 as a stabilizer, in a ratio of 15:1, at a temperature of 80 ºC was re-precipitated at room temperature using conc. hydrochloric acid. This PKNP was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analyzer (EDX), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Particle Size Analyzer, X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The encapsulation of the anti-cancer drug Paclitaxel (Taxol) to PKNP and its pH dependency for release of the drug from PKNP was studied using UV-Visible Spectrophotometry at λmax 296.7 nm. The PKNP were stirred with a 1000 ppm solution of Taxol in distilled water for 48 hours and the effectiveness of the encapsulation was evaluated by determining the Taxol concentration remaining in the filtrate using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The encapsulation efficiency of Taxol into PKNP was found to be 56%. The percentage release of Taxol from PKNP during the first 8 hours was <12% in acetate/phosphate buffer at pH 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0. The maximum release of 71% was observed after 24 hours at pH = 8.0 owing to dissolution of the particles at high pH.

Wednesday, July 18, 12:10-12:25

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker Kande Appulage Amith Ruparathna photo

Kande Appulage Amith Ruparathna

University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Title

Transparent oxide incorporation for anti-static polyester fabric

Biography

Amith Ruparathna holds a B. Sc. degree in Chemistry from University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka and currently he is doing his M. Phil degree studies in the same postgraduate institute. He is developing various methods to prepare different antistatic fabric materials and gloves for industrial purposes using Nanoscience and nanotechnology. 

Abstract

In textile industry, static electricity generation is witnessed in various high speed processes such as spinning and weaving. Anti–static fabrics are very useful particularly to industrial sector as a means of safety wear (i). Hence, synthesis of anti-static agents assimilated with other properties has become a fascinating area of research. Smart textiles with super-hydrophobicity (ii), anti-microbial activity, anti-pilling activity (iii and anti-static activity can be realized through nano technological approach. Herein, we developed a novel method to synthesize transparent F-doped ZnO (F-ZnO) nanocomposite on textile surfaces in order to introduce anti-static characteristics. In this research, blue color-dyed polyester fabrics were made antistatic by incorporating fluoride-doped zinc oxide needle-like nano-wires in them. First, the Solution-1 was prepared by mixing Zn(CH3OO)and NH4F at molar ratio of 5:2 in (100 mL) ethanol medium. A few drops of Triton X-100 were added while stirring. 0.100 mol dm-3 NaOH solution was prepared separately as the Solution-2. Then 50.0×50.0 cm fabric was dipped in Solution-1 and after that it was dipped in the solution-2, respectively. Finally, the fabric was heated at 90 ºC for 25 min and dried. The modified fabric was characterized by XRF, SEM, and electrical conductivity determination by the four-probe method. EDEX measurements show the presence of C, N, O, Zn and F indicating that fluoride-doped ZnO nano-needles are present on the surface of the polyester fabric. The fabric surface has an electrical conductivity of 4.63 MΩ cm-1. This is a very easy and straightforward method to attach transparent conducting oxide nano-needles on polyester surfaces and the dipping method can be easily scaled up so that large scale production of antistatic textiles is feasible.

 

Wednesday, July 18, 12:25-12:40

Meetings International - Nanotechnology 2018 Conference Session Speaker Shashiprabha Dunuweera photo

Shashiprabha Dunuweera

University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Title

Encapsulation of nitrogen fertilizer urea in porous calcium carbonate nanocarriers derived from local mineral dolomite for effective and slow release

Biography

Shashiprabha holds a B. Sc. Honors degree in Chemistry from University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. He is currently following his M.Sc in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in Postgraduate Institute of Science University of Peradeniya. He is Developing Synthetic Methods to Prepare Porous Nanoparticles for various fruitful applications in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. He has produced over 25 Indexed publications and communications

Abstract

Improvement of the utilization of fertilizer nutrients is important for the development and yield enhancement of agricultural production. Nitrogen is so far the most imperative nutrient for crops. Amongst the nitrogen fertilizers, urea is the most extensively used fertilizer owing to its high nitrogen content (46%) and comparatively low cost of production. However, because of surface runoff, leaching, and vaporization, the utilization efficiency or plant uptake process of urea is generally below 50%. About 45-75% of nitrogen of the applied fertilizers liberates to the environment and cannot be captivated by crops, which can be a large economic and natural resource losses and very serious environmental pollution like in algal blooming. Slow or controlled-release technology could successfully resolve these problems, and avoid or reduce the loss of fertilizers and environmental pollution. As such, this research was carried out to develop an economical, easily adaptable and scalable method to encapsulate urea in calcium carbonate nanoparticles (CCNP) synthesized using our own dolomitic recourses. Synthesized CCNP are in the nano-range between 20- 80 nm with average particle size of 38.9 nm in 90% confidence interval.  The FT-IR spectrum urea encapsulated nanoparticles have all the bands corresponding to CaCO3 and  N-H at 3455 and 1625 cm-1, C=O at 1677 cm-1 and C-N at 1453 cm-1 clearly indicating the presence of urea in CCNP. Titrimetry of urea before and after encapsulation show that 99.0% encapsulation of urea in CCNP. EDAX spectrum clearly shows the presence of the elements Ca, O and N which is derived from CCNP and Urea. 

 

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