Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore
Barmak received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering with the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 2013. Early in his career, he served as a Senior Lecturer with the Azad University of Urmia, Iran, from 1998 to 2009. From 2013 to 2015, he was a post-doc fellow at the Integrated Light-wave Research Group (ILRG) in the Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya. He was doing co-supervision of two Ph.D. students in the field of photonics and optics in ILRG. From 2015 to 2018, he was a research fellow in the Department of Image Processing at the Institute of Information Theory and Automation, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
S. enterica is currently the most common foodborne bacterial pathogen causing severe illness. Of the more than 2,500 identified S. enterica, only a few serovars are of public health importance. In the available literature, there is evidence that S. enterica Typhimurium and S. enterica Enteritidis are the most common causes of human salmonellosis, including Kazakhstan.
The aim of the study is genotyping of Salmonella bacterial isolates isolated from clinical material and food in 2018-2019 in Almaty.
Using RAPD PCR, a study of 25 S. enterica isolates isolated from foodstuffs and 65 S. enterica isolates isolated from clinical material, previously identified using biochemical tests, was carried out. Of 25 S. enterica isolates isolated from foods, 14 (56%) isolates were identified as S. enterica Typhimurium, 8 (32%) - S. enterica Enteritidis, 3 (12%) - S. enterica Virchow. In the study of 65 S. enterica isolates from clinical samples, 29 (44.6%) isolates have been identified as S. enterica Typhimurium, 13 (20%) - S. enterica Enteritidis, 23 (35.4%) - Salmonella enterica Virchow.
For three types of bacteria, S. enterica, a specific set of DNA fragments was identified that distinguish them from each other in RAPD PCR. Using RAPD PCR, two genetically different groups with different sets of DNA fragments of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates and three genetically heterogeneous isolates of S. enterica Virchow were found. With the accumulation of a sufficient number of mutations in genes, genotyping methods begin to distinguish isolates. In some cases, the isolates do not differ in the distribution of DNA fragments, which indicates the genetic similarity of these isolates. A genetic relationship was found in S. enterica Enteritidis isolates.