Ospedale Sacro Cuore Don Calabria, Italy
Luca Garriboli is a Director of Vascular and Endovascular Unit IRCCS SacroCuore Don Calabria Negrar Verona, Italy. He has published many articles in scientific journals.
To report the early and mid-term outcomes following open surgical conversion (OSC) after failed endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) using data from a multicentric registry.
A retrospective study was carried out on consecutive patients undergoing OSC after failed EVAR at eight tertiary vascular units from the same geographic area in the North-East of Italy, from April 2005 to November 2019. Study endpoints included early and follow-up outcomes.
A total of 144 consecutive patients were included in the study. Endoleaks were the most common indication for OSC (50.7%), with endograft infection (24.6%) and occlusion (21.9%) being the second most prevalent causes. The overall rate of 30-day all-cause mortality was 13.9% (n = 20); 32 patients (22.2%) experienced at least one major complication. Mean length of stay was 13 ± 12.7 days. On multivariate logistic regression, age (odds ratio [OR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1-19; P = .02), renal clamping time (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.13; P = .01), and suprarenal/celiac clamping (OR, 6.66; 95% CI, 1.81-27.1; P = .005) were identified as independent predictors of perioperative major complications. Age was the only factor associated with perioperative mortality at 30 days. Renal clamping time >25 minutes had sensitivity of 65% and specificity of 70% in predicting the occurring of major adverse events (area under the curve, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.61-0.82). At 5 years, estimated survival was significantly lower for patients treated due to aortic rupture/dissection (28%; 95% CI, 13%-61%), compared with patients in whom the indication for treatment was endoleak (54%; 95% CI, 40%-73%), infection (53%; 95% CI, 30%-94%), or thrombosis (82%; 95% CI, 62%-100%; P = .0019). Five-year survival rates were significantly lower in patients who received emergent treatment (28%; 95% CI, 14%-55%) as compared with those who were treated in an urgent (67%; 95% CI, 48%-93%) or elective setting (57%; 95% CI, 43%-76%; P = .00026). Subjects who received suprarenal/celiac (54%; 95% CI, 36%-82%) or suprarenal (46%; 95% CI, 34%-62%) aortic cross-clamping had lower survival rates at 5 years than those whose aortic-cross clamp site was infrarenal (76%; 95% CI, 59%-97%; P = .041). Using multivariate Cox proportional hazard, older age and emergency setting were independently associated with higher risk for overall 5-year mortality.
OSC after failed EVAR was associated with relatively high rates of early morbidity and mortality, particularly for emergency setting surgery. Endoleaks with secondary sac expansion were the main indication for OSC, and suprarenal aortic cross-clamping was frequently required. Endograft infection and emergent treatment remained associated with poorer short- and long-term survival.