Akihiko Kondo, Technology and Innovation, Kobe University, Japan
Akihiko Kondo, Department of Science, Graduate School of Science, Technology and Innovation, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nadaâ€ku, Kobe, Japan
Biorefinery has been suggested to provide relevant substitutes to a number of fossil products. Feedstocks and conversion technologies have, however, been the bottleneck to the realization of this concept. Herein, feedstocks and bioconversion technologies under biorefinery have been reviewed. Over the last decade, research has shown possibilities of generating tens of new products but only few industrial implementations. This is partly associated with low production yields and poor costâ€competitiveness. This review addresses the technical barriers associated with the conversion of emerging feedstocks into chemicals and bioenergy platforms and summarizes the developed biotechnological approaches including advances in metabolic engineering. This summary further suggests possible future advances that would expand the portfolio of biorefinery and speed up the realization of biofuels and biochemicals.