Webinar on

Bioenergy & Biomass

Scientific Program

Keynote Session:

Meetings International -  Conference Keynote Speaker Dr. Timilsina photo

Dr. Timilsina

Senior Research Economist at the Development Research Group of the World Bank, Washington, DC

Title: Biofuels: Current Markets, Policies and the Future


Dr. Timilsina is a Senior Research Economist at the Development Research Group of the World Bank, Washington, DC. He has more than 20 years’ experience across a board range of energy and climate change economics and policies at the international level. His key expertise includes biofuels, climate change policies, electricity economics and energy sector as well as general equilibrium modeling for policy analysis. Prior to joining the Bank, Dr. Timilsina was a Senior Research Director at the Canadian Energy Research Institute, Calgary, Canada. At present, he is leading a number of studies including the economics of renewable energy including biofuels, carbon pricing, and infrastructure and economic growth.


Biofuels: Current Markets, Policies and the Future
Govinda R. Timilsina, Senior Economist, World Bank, Washington DC.
During the second half of 2000, the market of liquid biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) increased rapidly due to policy drives (Figure 1). The production of ethanol increased by 2.6 times during that period, whereas the production of biodiesel increased by 4.5 times. This rapid increase, however, paused in the next two years due to the controversy created by a suspicion that biofuels might have fueled the 2007-08 global food crisis. The growth of biofuels started again in 2013 but at a slower rate. It is still growing, it grew by 7% in 2018. The revival biofuels growth occurred despite the several adverse factors such as fuel vs. food controversy, indirect land-use change debate, drops in oil prices.
Government policies are the major drivers for the continuous growth of biofuels. Policy instruments include blending mandates, tax exemption or rebate, direct investment grants. More than 56 countries around the world have introduced explicit blending mandates for biofuels (existing or planned). Some countries (e.g. Costa Rica, Brazil, India, Indonesia, Paraguay and Zimbabwe) have mandates to blend biofuels more than 20% by volume.
Despite many obstacles and food vs. fuel controversy, the production of biofuels has increased over time. The aviation sector is also looking for using biofuels. Although the recent production growth (after 2010) is not as high as that of the early 2000s, the growth is expected to be maintained in the future due to continued use in the existing mode of transportation (i.e., road transportation) and emerging applications in the aviation sector.
Figure 1: Trend of global production of biofuels
Source: Renewable Energy Network (REN21)
This presentation will present the evolution of global biofuels and bioenergy (biomass for heat and electricity production) markets. It will discuss the drivers of the global growth of biofuels and bioenergy production and key challenge faced by the markets around the world. It will then highlight policy instruments and market conditions for further expansion of biofuels and bioenergy.
Recent Publications (minimum 5)
1. De Gorter H, Drabik D and Timilsina GR, (2016) Producing biodiesel from soybeans in Zambia: An economic analysis, Food Policy, Vol. 59, pp. 103–109,
2. Drabik D, De Gorter H, and Timilsina GR, (2014) The Effect of Biodiesel Policies on World Biodiesel and Oilseed Prices, Energy Economics, Volume 44, Pages 80-88.
3. Timilsina GR (2013) Biofuels in the Long-run Global Energy Supply Mix for Transportation, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. pp. 372-392.
4. Timilsina GR and Mevel S (2012) Biofuels and Climate Change Mitigation: A CGE Analysis Incorporating Land-Use Change, Environmental and Resource Economics, Vo. 55, pp: 1-19.
5. Zilberman D, Hochman G, Rajogopal D, Timilsina GR and Sexton S (2013) The Impact of Biofuels on Commodity Food Prices: Assessment of Findings, American Journal of Agriculture Economics, Vol. 95, No. 2, pp. 275-281.
6. De Gorter H, Drabik D, Just DR and Timilsina GR (2015) The economics of Brazil’s ethanol-Sugar markets, mandates, and tax exemptions, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 97, No.5, pp. 1433-1450.
7. Timilsina GR, Chisari OO and Romero CA (2013). Economy-wide Impacts of Biofuels in Argentina, Energy Policy, Vol. 55, pp. 636-647.
8. Chang S, Zhao L, Zhang X and Timilsina GR (2012) Biofuels Development in China: Technology Options and Policies Needed to Meet the 2020 Target, Energy Policy, Vol. 51, pp. 64-79.
9. Poudel, BN, Timilsina, GR and Zilberman, D (2012). Providing Numbers for a Food versus Fuel Debate: An Analysis of a Future Biofuel Production Scenario, Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 637–668.
10. Timilsina GR (2012). Biofuels: the food versus fuel debate, CAB Reviews, Vol. 7, No. 036, pp. 1-8.
11. Timilsina GR (2013). How Will the EU’s Cap on Crop-based Biofuels Impact the Future of Biofuels? Biofuels, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 139-141.
12. Timilsina GR, Beghin J, van der Mensbrugghe D and Mevel S (2012). The Impacts of Biofuel Targets on Land-Use Change and Food Supply: A Global CGE Assessment, Agriculture Economics, Vol. 43, pp. 313-330.
13. Timilsina GR, Mevel S and Shrestha A (2011). Oil price, biofuels and food supply, Energy Policy, Vol. 39, No. 12, pp. 8098-8105.
14. Timilsina GR, Csordás S and Mevel S (2011). When Does a Carbon Tax on Fossil Fuels Stimulate Biofuels? Ecological Economics, Vol. 70, No. 12, pp. 2400-2415.
15. Carriquiry MA, Du X and Timilsina GR (2011). Second Generation Biofuels: Economics and Policies, Energy Policy, Vol. 39, No. 7, pp. 4222-4234.
16. Cheng JJ and Timilsina GR (2011). Status and Barriers of Advanced Biofuel Technologies: A Review, Renewable Energy, Vol. 36, No. 12, pp. 3541-3549.
17. Timilsina GR and Shrestha A (2011). How much hope should we have for biofuels?, Energy, Vol. 36, pp. 2055-2069.
Meetings International -  Conference Keynote Speaker Khalidullin Oleg photo

Khalidullin Oleg

Khalidullin Oleg, Institute of Mining of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh, SSR

Title: Slavery of water and climate


After graduating from the Kazakh Polytechnic Institute in Almaty, he worked in industry, in science - at the Institute of Mining of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, at the Kazakh National University named after Al-Farabi. I have 28 inventions, including environmental protection. Published more than 120 articles, including on the climate. 7 books published. 



The evaporation of water and the spread of its vapors in the air is the main element of the mechanism of atmospheric phenomena. Molecules in different concentrations, compounds with molecules of other gases, in interaction with temperature, pressure, air movement condense into drops of water, turn into fog, cloud. With increasing volumes, the clouds thicken, increase, block the flow of solar radiation. In this state, they can hang from several minutes to several days. The droplet state passes into the molecular state and vice versa. This we can see in clear weather, with little cloud cover. By focusing on a small cloud, you can see how it disappears. In the atmosphere there are processes that are poorly understood, but, with their active participation, biota and modern nature appeared.
At full saturation, a lightning discharge, drops combine and precipitate. The speed and volume of condensations, the trajectories of the movements of the clouds correspond to certain unexplored laws. As a result of the operation of these laws, a special mechanism was built over millions of years - the water cycle between the atmosphere and soil. The main links in this cycle are:
• Evaporation of water from open surface water bodies, soil, transpiration of plants, from animal excreta.
• Drop condensation, concentration and cloud formation. The movement and growth of clouds, species, altitude, concentration and other parameters are poorly understood and uncontrollable. Perhaps the diversity of cloud types depends on the quality of the vapors. Interesting clouds have recently appeared, http://chydesa-mira.ru/oblaka-asperatus/ :
Clouds of asperatus: what is this phenomenon. It is known that in the 21st century their appearance began to be noted much more often. This prompted the scientists of the World Meteorological Organization in 2009 to separate them into a separate type of clouds and include them in the “International Atlas of clouds”. But it is not known exactly when such clouds were seen for the first time.
It is assumed that this is a condensation of particles of a special kind, perhaps the composition of the clouds was formed from non-natural vapor.
• Precipitation.
• Precipitation on land forms streams and replenishes rivers, goes into underground networks. Dissolve in itself minerals and decaying organic matter.
• Water with substances dissolved in it enters the roots of plants, nourish animals. A third of the entire planet’s surface is land. The common notion that the seas and oceans, which cover 2/3 of the entire planet, therefore evaporate most of the water, is a myth. It was found that, if we summarize the transpiration surface of the vegetation of all land, each leaf of which is an evaporator, then the entire area of ​​evaporation becomes equal to the surface of the oceans and seas. It should be added that on each hectare of fertile soil 20 tons of underground living creatures inhabit, each unit of which consumes water, releases salt from it, converts it into various elements of its body and releases it into the atmosphere as waste. Therefore, evaporation from land not less than half of all moisture in the atmosphere - the main component of atmospheric mechanisms.
• Conversion of the incoming fluid into the roots of plants and animal stomachs, the creation of chemical reactions to build the body and the release of moisture into waste. Part of the water remains in organisms and plants for long periods, for example, in growing bones and wood, but most of it comes out regularly during the day with secretions, expiration, and transpiration.
• Everything that is consumed by biota - everything is processed with the extraction of minerals and salts. Purified moisture is no longer just H2O. This is a special moisture with the molecular structure of a particular body and plant with some special properties, such as odors. All this comes out with various excretions that act as signaling for partners, predators and victims. All unused leaves in the clouds.
 The loop is closed.
It should be taken into account that the quality of the consumed water is the same in every place, and the quality of the output vapors and emissions is strictly individual for each consumer and varies in each consumer - many types, for example, sweat, expiratory moisture, urine, blood.
All the biota vapor, in each of its molecules, is not just H2O, but the structures corresponding to the source. Surely the molecule that emerged from the flower’s petal is different from the molecule exhaling an elephant and from a molecule or raised from a puddle on the asphalt. Molecular structures form an individual substance in the atmosphere above each geographical point in certain combinations, volumes, stability of the gas state, and light transmission. In the process of atmospheric transformations, many factors are involved. One of the most important is the quality of the substance. It is quite acceptable that this parameter is involved in determining the time, places and volume of precipitation.
 The everlasting circuit has created and maintained millions of years of many different natural habitats - the tropics and shrouds, forests and steppes, deserts and glaciers. Each of the ranges has its own regimes, temperatures, precipitation, volumes, rates and quality soaring. The moisture of the atmosphere, its quality and quantity are the main element in the creation and formation of clouds. Clouds, depending on these parameters, form their properties and affect the life of biota on the soil and nearby layers. According to information from: https://ozlib.com/831917/sotsium/znachenie_rol_vodyanogo_para_atmosfere : Another physical property of water vapor is its ability to strongly absorb and hold the Earth's infrared (long-wave, reflected) radiation, but water vapor itself emits it quite strongly why, in addition, its amount goes again to the earth's surface, which greatly enhances the greenhouse effect and leads to a significant increase in temperature on the planet.
That is why water vapor is considered one of the most important greenhouse gases along with carbon dioxide. Only now “on an equal footing” is a statement that needs to be reviewed. There is evidence of an excess of volumes of water vapor over volumes of carbon dioxide: According to information from http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/ruwiki/6330
nitrogen 78.8
oxygen 20.95
steam 1
argon 0.93
carbon dioxide 0.038
Pre-industrial data. 26 times less dioxide than steam. According to modern research:
 http://ekolog.org/books/21/5_2.htm:  Total freshwater consumption is increasing year by year in all regions of the world. If at the beginning of our century, mankind consumed 400 km3 of water per year, then now every year we need about 4000 km3, i.e. about 10% of global river flow. According to other sources: https://medcraveonline.com/JAMB/JAMB-07-00227.pdf  22,000 km3 are taken by people from underground and surface sources. All these waters have shortened their path of transformation, destined by nature, the links that ensure the functioning of the biota are excluded from circulation. The links of dissolution of substances and their transformation in biota clearly disappear. The disappearance of biota from 70% of land also reduces organic fumes.
A new type of vapor appears for nature - artificial vapor.
 Let's recalculate the minimum known figure of the fence - 4000 km3
In 1km3 = 1000x1000x1000 = 1,000,000,000 = 1 billion m3.
In 1m3 = 1t, then 4000 x 1bn. m3 = 4x1012 or 4,000,000,000,000, or 4trn m3, if we assume that all this water evaporates in the process itself and after use. It evaporates during boiling, heating, cooling, after discharge into the sewer, from the sumps. The same vapors, let us call them artificial, include vapors from the surfaces of the cultivated soil, numerous landfills, artificial reservoirs, fires, floods, asphalt, exposed areas from the forests of the entire planet. In addition to direct evaporation, all water passed through pipes, pumps, heaters, turbines, concrete banks is deprived of its natural function and the ability to dissolve minerals. During evaporation, it does not carry a “report” on the fulfillment of its mission on the ground.
From a fairly reputable source http://www.refsru.com/referat-17732-3.html it is known that carbon emission is 400 billion tons in 100 years.
Meetings International -  Conference Keynote Speaker Jung-Chang Wang photo

Jung-Chang Wang

Jung-Chang Wang,Professor, National Taiwan Ocean University (NTOU), Taiwan, ROC.

Title: Bioenergy Recovery for TEP Device of Various Nanofluids


Jung-Chang Wang,Professor, Marine Engineering (DME), National Taiwan Ocean University (NTOU), Taiwan, ROC.


A TEP (thermoelectric pipe) device was constructed graphite electrodes, Teflon material, and stainless steel tube involving nanofluids as electrolyte. Both of heat dissipation and power generation were carried out through the thermal-electrochemistry effect of nanofluids. Water based nanofluids inside the TEP device were employed for the intentions of cooling function and bioenergy recovery simultaneously. The results revealed that the titanium dioxide (TiO2) water based nanofluid had the best thermoelectric performance and suspension stability properties among these water based nanofluids of TiO2, aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and zinc oxide (ZnO). And the thermal conductivity and power density empirical formulas of the TEP device were derived through the intelligent dimensional analysis and evaluated at a temperature between 20 and 40 °C and 0.5 to 5 wt.%.
Recent Publications (minimum 5)
1. P.-H. Yen and J.-C. Wang*, 2019, Power Generation and Electric Charge Density with Temperature Effect of Alumina Nanofluids using Dimensional Analysis, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol.186, April, pp.546-555. (SCI) (IF=6.377)
2. R.-T. Wang and J.-C. Wang*, 2017, Analysis of Thermal Conductivity in HI-LEDs Lighting Materials, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 31(6), June pp.2911-2921. (SCI) (IF=1.128)
3. R.-T. Wang and J.-C. Wang*, 2017, Intelligent Dimensional and Thermal Performance Analysis of Al2O3 Nanofluid, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol.138, April, pp.686-697. (SCI) (IF=5.589)
4. R.-T. Wang and J.-C. Wang*, 2016, Analyzing the Structural Designs and Thermal Performance of Nonmetal LED Lighting Devices of LED bulbs, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 99, August, pp.750-761. (SCI) (IF=3.458)
5. R.-T. Wang and J.-C. Wang*, 2016, Alumina Nanofluids as Electrolytes Comparisons to Various Neutral Aqueous Solutions inside Battery, Journal of Mechanics, Vol. 32, No. 3, June, pp.369-379. (SCI) (IF=0.819)
6. R.-T. Wang and J.-C. Wang*, 2015, Optimization of Heat Flow Analysis for Exceeding Hundred Watts in HI-LEDs Projectors, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 67, October, pp.153-162. (SCI) (IF=3.718)
7. J.-C. Wang*, 2014, L- and U-shaped Heat Pipes Thermal Modules with Twin Fans for Cooling of Electronic System under Variable Heat Source Areas, Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 50, issue 11, pp.1487-1498. (SCI) (IF=1.233)
8. J.-C. Wang*, 2014, U- and L-shaped Heat Pipes Heat Sinks for Cooling Electronic Components Employed a Least Square Smoothing Method, Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 54, Issues 6/7, June, pp.1344-1354. (SCI) (IF=1.371)
9. J.-C. Wang*, 2014, Thermal Module Design and Analysis of a 230 Watt LED Illumination Lamp under Three Incline Angles, Microelectronics Journal, Vol. 45, Issue 4, April, pp.416-423. (SCI) (IF=1.163)
10. J.-C. Wang*, 2013, Thermoelectric Transformation and Illuminative Performance Analysis of a Novel LED-MGVC Device, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 48, November, pp.80-85. (SCI) (IF=3.718)
Meetings International -  Conference Keynote Speaker Solomon Addisu photo

Solomon Addisu

Solomon Addisu, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

Title: ENSO, Climate change and Ethiopian Long Rain Season from the Global Circulation Model Output Data


Solomon Addisu  has expertise in Environmental Sciences specialized in climate change. 


ENSO, Climate change and Ethiopian Long Rain Season from the Global Circulation Model Output Data



The primary reason to study summer monsoon (long rain season) all over Ethiopia was due to the atmospheric circulation displays a spectacular annual cycle of rainfall in which more than 80% of the annual rain comes during the summer season comprised of the months June to September. Any minor change in rainfall intensity from the normal conditions imposes a severe challenge on the rural people since its main livelihood is agriculture which mostly relies on summer monsoon.The objectives of the research were to examine the global circulation model output data and its outlooks over Ethiopian summer rainfall and temperature.  These data were analyzed by using XconMatlab and Grid Analysis and Display System computer software programs. The analysis of the Global Circulation Model (GCM) data output and the National Center for Environmental Predictions (NCEP) re-analysis of the period 1971 to 2010, the trend analysis and the future predictions (2015 to 2054) have been stated by a comparative method. The results revealed that, the past Ethiopian summer monsoon has declined by 70.51mm.Most of the models have failed to capture Ethiopian summer rainfall due to the fact that the altitudinal climate controlling effects have been dominating than the latitudinal one. The best performed models having similar trends to the observed data predicted the future summer monsoon as a decline of 89.45mm by model beccr to 60.07mm by model cccma.  On the other hand, the summer mean temperature of the past four decades has increased by 0.548oC and it will be expected to increase by 0.59OC (bccr) and 0.743OC (cccma) by the next four decades.To conclude, the legislative bodies and development planners should design strategies and plans by taking into account impacts of declining summer rainfall and increasing temperature on rural livelihoods.


Oral Session 1:

  • Biomass Resources Biopower Biofuels Biobased Chemicals and Materials Integrated Biomass Systems and Assessments Biorefineries Biochar Global Renewable Bioenergy trends H2 from biomass Conventional combustion
Meetings International - Bioenergy 2021 Conference Keynote Speaker Dr. Selhan Karagöz photo

Dr. Selhan Karagöz

Selhan Karagöz, Dokuz Eylül University, Turkey

Title: Biological Gaseous Energy Recovery from Lignocellulosic Biomass


Selhan Karagöz, Chemistry Program, Izmir Vocational School, Dokuz Eylül University, 35160 Buca, Izmir, Turkey


Pyrolysis of waste biomasses was carried out at the temperatures of 450 and 500°C by heating at 5°C min−1. Products were collected from emitted gases in a nitrogen purge stream; condensable liquids in the gases were collected by condensation. Gaseous, condensed liquid products and residual solids were collected and analyzed. Condensates were extracted with ether to recover the bio oils (BOs). The maximum liquid yield was obtained from the pyrolysis of soybean oil cake (SBOC) at 500°C with a yield of 60% ca. The BO was higher in the case of SBOC than that of sunflower oil cake (SFOC) at the temperatures of 450 and 500°C. With increasing temperature, bio char yield from the pyrolysis of SFOC decreased, while the liquid yield increased. The increase in temperature did not significantly affect the product distribution for the pyrolysis of SBOC. The compositions of BOs were similar for both SBOC and SFOC. Phenols, phenol derivatives including guaiacols and alkyl‐benzenes were the most common and predominant in BOs from both the pyrolysis of SBOC and SFOC. Carbon dioxide was the major gas product for both SBOC and SFOC. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Meetings International - Bioenergy 2021 Conference Keynote Speaker William R. Horwath photo

William R. Horwath

William R. Horwath, Soils & Biogeochemistry Program, Plant and Environmental Sciences Building, One Shields Avenue Davis, CA

Title: Biomass: Soil Microbial Biomass


William R. Horwath, Soils & Biogeochemistry Program, Plant and Environmental Sciences Building, One Shields Avenue
Davis, CA


The soil microbial biomass plays an important role in ecosystem function primarily through the regulation of nutrient cycles. In their search for energy to grow, the soil microbial biomass relies on nutrients in the plant litter and soil. Because of its competitive ability, the soil microbial biomass is often considered the source and sink of essential plant nutrients. The wide diversity and function of the soil microbial biomass exemplifies its role in a wide variety of processes, including parasitism, pathogenesis, and symbiosis. This wide functionality has made the study of soil microbial biomass problematic and often leads to misinterpretation of its importance in ecosystem function.

Meetings International - Bioenergy 2021 Conference Keynote Speaker Akihiko Kondo photo

Akihiko Kondo

Akihiko Kondo, Technology and Innovation, Kobe University, Japan

Title: Bioenergy and Biorefinery: Feedstock, Biotechnological Conversion, and Products


Akihiko Kondo, Department of Science, Graduate School of Science, Technology and Innovation, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada‐ku, Kobe, Japan


Biorefinery has been suggested to provide relevant substitutes to a number of fossil products. Feedstocks and conversion technologies have, however, been the bottleneck to the realization of this concept. Herein, feedstocks and bioconversion technologies under biorefinery have been reviewed. Over the last decade, research has shown possibilities of generating tens of new products but only few industrial implementations. This is partly associated with low production yields and poor cost‐competitiveness. This review addresses the technical barriers associated with the conversion of emerging feedstocks into chemicals and bioenergy platforms and summarizes the developed biotechnological approaches including advances in metabolic engineering. This summary further suggests possible future advances that would expand the portfolio of biorefinery and speed up the realization of biofuels and biochemicals.

Meetings International - Bioenergy 2021 Conference Keynote Speaker Walter V. Reid photo

Walter V. Reid

Walter V. Reid, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Los Altos, CA 94022, USA.

Title: The future of bioenergy


Walter V. Reid, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Los Altos, CA 94022, USA.


Energy from biomass plays a large and growing role in the global energy system. Energy from biomass can make significant contributions to reducing carbon emissions, especially from difficult‐to‐decarbonize sectors like aviation, heavy transport, and manufacturing. But land‐intensive bioenergy often entails substantial carbon emissions from land‐use change as well as production, harvesting, and transportation. In addition, land‐intensive bioenergy scales only with the utilization of vast amounts of land, a resource that is fundamentally limited in supply. Because of the land constraint, the intrinsically low yields of energy per unit of land area, and rapid technological progress in competing technologies, land intensive bioenergy makes the most sense as a transitional element of the global energy mix, playing an important role over the next few decades and then fading, probably after mid‐century. Managing an effective trajectory for land‐intensive bioenergy will require an unusual mix of policies and incentives that encourage appropriate utilization in the short term but minimize lock‐in in the longer term.

Meetings International - Bioenergy 2021 Conference Keynote Speaker Frederik C. Botha photo

Frederik C. Botha

Frederik C. Botha, Institute of Plant Biotechnology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa

Title: Bioenergy Conversion and Materials


Frederik C. Botha, Institute of Plant Biotechnology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa


From ancient times, plant biomass has been combusted to produce heat. Depending on the bioenergy feedstock and the energy processing platform, there are three major biofuel products: bioethanol (1G and 2G), biogas (1G and 2G), and biodiesel (3G). The basic steps involved in operating a biomass based biorefinery are similar regardless of the feedstock. Biomass first needs transformation, which involves separation or extraction of plant components by grinding, followed by fractionation or cracking by biological or physical–chemical technologies. The key steps in bioconversion of lignocellulose to fuels are size reduction, pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fuel production. Life cycle analysis or assessment (LCA) is an internationally recognized methodology for evaluating the global environmental performance of a product, process, or pathway along its partial or whole life cycle, considering the effects generated from “cradle‐to‐grave”.

Meetings International - Bioenergy 2021 Conference Keynote Speaker Daniel Ciolkosz photo

Daniel Ciolkosz

Daniel Ciolkosz, The Pennsylvania State University , USA.

Title: A review of torrefaction for bioenergy feedstock production


Daniel Ciolkosz, The Pennsylvania State University Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 249 Ag Engineering Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA.


The torrefaction of biomass is a thermochemical decomposition process in which hemicellulose degradation is the dominant reaction, with the cellulose and lignin fractions largely unaffected. The primary product is a solid material that retains 75–95% of the original energy content. Properties of the torrefied solid include improved grindability, hydrophobicity, and energy density. Torrefied biomass has been processed successfully in batch‐mode and continuous process devices; net thermal efficiencies of the process as high as 90% have been reported. Torrefied biomass has been proposed as a feedstock for coal co‐combustion, as well as for gasification‐combustion and Fischer‐Tropsch fuel production. Analyses of supply chain impacts indicate that, in some scenarios, torrefaction can be the lowest cost and most energy efficient option for supplying fuel, especially when combined with pelletization of the material.

Significant gaps still exist in our understanding of torrefaction; there is need to further study this important process for its potential benefits to bioenergy production. Some of the more pressing needs include characterization of chemical pathways of the torrefaction reaction, investigation of equipment performance and equipment‐related influences on the process, and elucidation of supply chain impacts. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd