Dr. Timilsina is a Senior Research Economist at the Development Research Group of the World Bank, Washington, DC. He has more than 20 years’ experience across a board range of energy and climate change economics and policies at the international level. His key expertise includes biofuels, climate change policies, electricity economics and energy sector as well as general equilibrium modeling for policy analysis. Prior to joining the Bank, Dr. Timilsina was a Senior Research Director at the Canadian Energy Research Institute, Calgary, Canada. At present, he is leading a number of studies including the economics of renewable energy including biofuels, carbon pricing, and infrastructure and economic growth.
After graduating from the Kazakh Polytechnic Institute in Almaty, he worked in industry, in science - at the Institute of Mining of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, at the Kazakh National University named after Al-Farabi. I have 28 inventions, including environmental protection. Published more than 120 articles, including on the climate. 7 books published.
Solomon Addisu has expertise in Environmental Sciences specialized in climate change.
The primary reason to study summer monsoon (long rain season) all over Ethiopia was due to the atmospheric circulation displays a spectacular annual cycle of rainfall in which more than 80% of the annual rain comes during the summer season comprised of the months June to September. Any minor change in rainfall intensity from the normal conditions imposes a severe challenge on the rural people since its main livelihood is agriculture which mostly relies on summer monsoon.The objectives of the research were to examine the global circulation model output data and its outlooks over Ethiopian summer rainfall and temperature. These data were analyzed by using Xcon, Matlab and Grid Analysis and Display System computer software programs. The analysis of the Global Circulation Model (GCM) data output and the National Center for Environmental Predictions (NCEP) re-analysis of the period 1971 to 2010, the trend analysis and the future predictions (2015 to 2054) have been stated by a comparative method. The results revealed that, the past Ethiopian summer monsoon has declined by 70.51mm.Most of the models have failed to capture Ethiopian summer rainfall due to the fact that the altitudinal climate controlling effects have been dominating than the latitudinal one. The best performed models having similar trends to the observed data predicted the future summer monsoon as a decline of 89.45mm by model beccr to 60.07mm by model cccma. On the other hand, the summer mean temperature of the past four decades has increased by 0.548oC and it will be expected to increase by 0.59OC (bccr) and 0.743OC (cccma) by the next four decades.To conclude, the legislative bodies and development planners should design strategies and plans by taking into account impacts of declining summer rainfall and increasing temperature on rural livelihoods.
The soil microbial biomass plays an important role in ecosystem function primarily through the regulation of nutrient cycles. In their search for energy to grow, the soil microbial biomass relies on nutrients in the plant litter and soil. Because of its competitive ability, the soil microbial biomass is often considered the source and sink of essential plant nutrients. The wide diversity and function of the soil microbial biomass exemplifies its role in a wide variety of processes, including parasitism, pathogenesis, and symbiosis. This wide functionality has made the study of soil microbial biomass problematic and often leads to misinterpretation of its importance in ecosystem function.
Akihiko Kondo, Department of Science, Graduate School of Science, Technology and Innovation, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nadaâ€ku, Kobe, Japan
Biorefinery has been suggested to provide relevant substitutes to a number of fossil products. Feedstocks and conversion technologies have, however, been the bottleneck to the realization of this concept. Herein, feedstocks and bioconversion technologies under biorefinery have been reviewed. Over the last decade, research has shown possibilities of generating tens of new products but only few industrial implementations. This is partly associated with low production yields and poor costâ€competitiveness. This review addresses the technical barriers associated with the conversion of emerging feedstocks into chemicals and bioenergy platforms and summarizes the developed biotechnological approaches including advances in metabolic engineering. This summary further suggests possible future advances that would expand the portfolio of biorefinery and speed up the realization of biofuels and biochemicals.
Walter V. Reid, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Los Altos, CA 94022, USA.
Energy from biomass plays a large and growing role in the global energy system. Energy from biomass can make significant contributions to reducing carbon emissions, especially from difficultâ€toâ€decarbonize sectors like aviation, heavy transport, and manufacturing. But landâ€intensive bioenergy often entails substantial carbon emissions from landâ€use change as well as production, harvesting, and transportation. In addition, landâ€intensive bioenergy scales only with the utilization of vast amounts of land, a resource that is fundamentally limited in supply. Because of the land constraint, the intrinsically low yields of energy per unit of land area, and rapid technological progress in competing technologies, land intensive bioenergy makes the most sense as a transitional element of the global energy mix, playing an important role over the next few decades and then fading, probably after midâ€century. Managing an effective trajectory for landâ€intensive bioenergy will require an unusual mix of policies and incentives that encourage appropriate utilization in the short term but minimize lockâ€in in the longer term.
Frederik C. Botha, Institute of Plant Biotechnology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa
From ancient times, plant biomass has been combusted to produce heat. Depending on the bioenergy feedstock and the energy processing platform, there are three major biofuel products: bioethanol (1G and 2G), biogas (1G and 2G), and biodiesel (3G). The basic steps involved in operating a biomass based biorefinery are similar regardless of the feedstock. Biomass first needs transformation, which involves separation or extraction of plant components by grinding, followed by fractionation or cracking by biological or physical–chemical technologies. The key steps in bioconversion of lignocellulose to fuels are size reduction, pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fuel production. Life cycle analysis or assessment (LCA) is an internationally recognized methodology for evaluating the global environmental performance of a product, process, or pathway along its partial or whole life cycle, considering the effects generated from “cradleâ€toâ€grave”.
Daniel Ciolkosz, The Pennsylvania State University Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 249 Ag Engineering Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA.