Cancer research is to identify causes and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and cure. Cancer research ranges from epidemiology, molecular bioscience to the performance of clinical trials to evaluate and compare applications of the various cancer treatments. These applications include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy and combined treatment modalities such as chemo-radiotherapy.
Cancer immunotherapy exploits the fact that cancer cells often have tumor antigens, molecules on their surface that can be detected by the antibody proteins of the immune system, binding to them. The tumor antigens are often proteins or other macromolecules. Normal antibodies bind to external pathogens, but the modified immunotherapy antibodies bind to the tumor antigens marking and identifying the cancer cells for the immune system to inhibit or kill. Cellular immunotherapy
Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen. Chemotherapy may be given with a curative intent, or it may aim to prolong life or to reduce symptoms. Chemotherapy is one of the major categories of the medical discipline specifically devoted to pharmacotherapy for cancer, which is called medical oncology.
Radiation therapy is a standard treatment can be applied safely to a wide range of cancers, and may be used alone or in conjunction with chemotherapy, surgery and other treatments. It is usually completely non-invasive and accessed through out-patient clinics. Radiation therapy is the most effective conventional method for cancer treatment.
To confirm the diagnosis of most cancers, a Biopsy needs is to be performed in which a tissue sample is removed from the suspected tumour which occurred initially and studied under a microscope for detecting cancer cells. Endoscopy can be done by inserting a flexible plastic tube with a tiny camera on the body cavities and organs. Screening tests are used to detect the possibility of a cancer which is present before symptoms occur. To identify cancer at its initial stage, different types of cancer diagnostic tests are used to
Cancer is a Genetic disease mainly caused due to the Alterations in different kinds of Genes. This field is called as Oncogenomics. Cancers develop due to DNA Mutations and Epigenetics alteration s and accumulates as a solid mass called as tumor. p53 is the most commonly mutated gene in people who have cancer. Genetic changes that increase cancer risk can be inherited from our parents if the changes are present in germ cells, which are the reproductive cells of the body.
Pathologists are among the most important members of a patient’s cancer care team. They work to diagnose and determine the stage of cancer, setting the course for what comes next in the treatment journey. Diagnosis and staging are just the beginning of a cancer pathologist’s work. He or she also studies the tumor’s molecular structure to determine whether it is likely to be sensitive to certain chemotherapy drugs, hormone treatments or other cancer therapies.
Malignant growth depends on the area of disease cells happen specifically organ. The rare types of cancers are which affect the bone known as Bone Cancer. Depending upon the location of cancer the causes, symptoms, and method of treatments vary. Carcinoma, Sarcoma, leukaemia, lymphoma, and melanoma are the types of cancer found in different organs.
Cancer prevention is an accomplishment drags towards lower chance of getting cancer. With the prevention cancer, the number of new cases of cancer can be reduced. Expectantly, this will moderate the load of cancer and cancer death number will decrease. The risk of cancer can be condensed through diet and other lifestyle change. Tobacco is precisely associated with cancer, so precluding tobacco can reduce the danger of lung cancer. Reducing the level of alcohol can reduce the danger of neck throat and esophageal cancer. Persuading exposed skin by smearing sunscreen lotions in order to reduce the risk of skin cancer.
Cancer vaccines generally either treat existing cancer or prevent development of a cancer. Cancer treatment vaccines are made up of cancer cells, parts of cells, or pure antigens. Sometimes a patient’s own immune cells are removed and exposed to these substances in the lab to create the vaccines.
Cells which are present in tumor and have the capabilities of self-renewing and ability to give rise to many cells are known as cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cell model also known as hierarchical model process. Cellular therapies are a part of complimentary treatment regimens.
Unlike diagnostic efforts prompted by symptoms and medical signs, cancer screening involves efforts to detect cancer after it has formed, but before any noticeable symptoms appear. This may involve physical examination, blood or urine tests or medical imaging.