Glycobiology and Glycochemistry deals with various aspects of glycan’s, including carbohydrate structure, biochemistry, biological functions and applications.Sugars or saccharides are essential components of all living things and aspects of the various roles they play in biology are researched in various biochemical, medical and biotechnological fields. Sugars are the major contributors in nature. Many natural products contain oligosaccharides that are important for their biological and biochemical activity. Carbohydrates have major roles in a wide range of biological processes including signal transduction mechanisms and immune responses.
Glycoproteomics focuses on the role of protein glycosylation in various biological processes. They identify and characterize proteins containing carbohydrates as a post translational modification. Mass spectrometry is commonly and widely used to identify the sugar moieties attached. Proteomics studies along with glycans produce large volumes of raw experimental data and inferred biological results. Experimental study of proteomics data focuses on freely-available, centralized data resources that store experimental mass spectrometry data and results.
Carbohydrates were very essential in the early history of immunology in depicting the identity of antigens which are recognized by antibodies. The capacity of these antibodies to recognize glycans and carbohydrate related molecules was exploited in studies defining the size of the antigen-binding site. Various carbohydrate-binding proteins, or lectins, have been identified on the surfaces of immune cells which intensify the significance of carbohydrates in both innate and adaptive immune responses in development of modern vaccines and immunological therapeutics. Recently glycobiologists and immunologists are now collaborating to explore this crucial field in the area of immunobiology
Glycomedicine plays significant role in cell-cell adhesion i.e. a technique utilized by cells of the immune system by means of sugar-binding proteins called lectins, which distinguishes specific carbohydrate moieties. Glycans are the building blocks of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Glycans play significant roles in many biological phenomena and various pathophysiological processes. .The roles of glycans and glycoconjgates in cancer have been emphasized. A small alteration in glycosylation can hugely regulate the entire pathway and mechanisms of cancer, which leads to an indication as a biomarker development leading to various therapeutics development in cancer research.
Glycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate attached by a glycosidic bond or covalent bond. They maintain the stability of the cell membrane and facilitate cellular recognition, which is crucial to the immune response and in the connections that allow cells to connect to one another to form tissues. They are found on the surface of all eukaryotic cell membranes, where they extend from the phospholipid bilayer into the extracellular environment.
Mass Spectrometry Analysis is a technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions according to their mass-to-charge ratio. It is used for characterization and elucidation of glycan structures. A mass spectrum is a plot of the ion signal as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio during experimental analysis. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) may be used to detect intact glycans. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) also provides good signals for the smaller glycans. Various free and commercial software are now available which interpret MS data and help in Glycan structure characterization.
Recently, the interest in exploiting the biological activity of glycans as vaccine components has considerably increased. On the one hand, carbohydrates display epitopes to generate protective antibodies against pathogen-derived cell wall structures and on the other hand, glycans have the potential to stimulate the immune system. So, they can act as potent vaccine adjuvants. An effective vaccine consists of two major components, the vaccine antigen and an adjuvant. The vaccine antigen is an original or modified part of the pathogen that causes the disease. The immune response triggered by vaccination should induce antigen-specific plasma cells secreting protective antibodies as well as the development of memory T and B cells. Carbohydrate structures on pathogens represent an important class of antigens that can activate B cells to produce protective anti-carbohydrate antibodies in adults.
Glycoconjugates are carbohydrates that are covalently connected to other biological molecules, for example, amino acids (to generate peptidoglycans), proteins (glycopeptides and glycoproteins), lipids (glycolipids and lipopolysaccharides), and other small molecules (glycosides). They are formed by glycosylation process. Glycoconjugates are composed of many different categories, for example, glycoproteins, glycopeptides, glycolipids, peptidoglycans, glycosides and lipopolysaccharides.
Glycomics is a subset of the field of glycobiology that aims to identify the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a given cell or organism and identify all the genes that encode glycoproteins.
Metabolomics, or the comprehensive profiling of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues, or whole organisms, has undergone a rapid technological evolution in the past two decades. These advances have led to the application of metabolomics to defining predictive biomarkers for incident cardiometabolic diseases and, increasingly, as a blueprint for understanding those diseases pathophysiologic mechanisms.
Glycoscience involves an extensive scope of learning and research carbohydrate metabolism, , structure, anabolism and function. Glycans are expressed in all microorganisms, including prions, as well as in all higher organisms, thus it is not surprising that their biological and disease impacts are profound. New innovations in the field, along with novel perspectives and insights, are helping to shape the future of glycoscience toward a more rationally integrated discipline alongside other biological and clinical disciplines as glycoscience becomes a cornerstone of modern chemical, biological, and biomedical sciences.
Monosaccharides consist of one sugar unit that cannot be further broken down into simpler sugars. They are also called simple sugars. Examples of monosaccharides include glucose, fructose and galactose.
Glycans are essential components of numerous bio therapeutic agents, varying from natural products to molecules based on various rational designs to recombinant glycoconjugates and glycoproteins. The glycan components of these agents can be important determinants of their biological activity and therapeutic efficacy. Modern patenting of new therapeutics commonly requires clarifications of the composition of matter in the claimed molecule for approval. Various remarkable advances can be found in the areas of imaging, structure prediction technologies and advancement of hybrid methods to understand the structure and function of carbohydrates and proteins.
Respiratory illnesses, regardless of whether acute or chronic, communicable or noncommunicable, impose a major global burden and influence a large number of individuals. Due to the progress in investigational technologies (such as imaging and biomarkers), respiratory diseases can be diagnosed and managed more efficiently. Techniques such as real-time MRI, three-dimensional ultrasonographic computing and ‘visiology’ are extending our comprehension of a range of conditions. So-called ‘biological’ approaches are increasingly prominent in respiratory medicine, and new devices for ventilatory support or endoscopic procedures are constantly becoming available.
This Conference focuses on the current advances in the diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive modalities of digestive diseases based on the latest research. There are several different technologies and innovations that can be used to diagnose and treat digestive diseases. Some of the commonly used diagnostic technologies are:
Several advances in the management of endocrine diseases can be seen in the recent years. These include novel drugs developed as a consequence of better understanding of the pathophysiology of endocrine conditions, as well as improved delivery methods for existing drugs. Control of hormone hypersecretion and replacement of hormone deficiencies are the mainstay of treatment in endocrinology. The ultimate goal of treatment is to reduce the long-term morbidity and mortality associated with hormone hypo- or hypersecretion and to improve the quality of life
Many researches are going on to prevent and cure reproductive disorders. In vitro fertilisation is a type of assisted reproductive technology used in case of infertility. Sexually transmitted diseases are caused by unprotected sex. Recent research focuses on the treatment and prevention of various reproductive disorders such as infertility, endometriosis, sexually transmitted disease, cervical cancer, etc.
The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra. Urinary System eliminates waste from the body, regulate blood volume and blood pressure, control levels of electrolytes and metabolites, and regulate blood pH. Urinary tract infections affect millions of people every year.
The nervous system is a complex network of nerves and cells that carry messages to and from the brain and spinal cord to various parts of the body. The nervous system consists of Central nervous system and Peripheral nervous system. The Central nervous system includes brain and spinal cord. The Peripheral nervous system includes the Somatic and the Autonomic nervous systems. The development of gene therapy for nervous system tumours has progressed rapidly and may be prototypical in the development of therapies for inherited and acquired disorders of the nervous system.
The essential components of the cardiovascular system are the heart, blood and blood vessels. It transports oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the body in order to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis. Pulmonary Circulation carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. Systemic Circulation carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart.
Bones are mineralized dense connective tissues made up of few cells in mineralized matrix. It consists of 30-40% of our body weight. It is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the skeletal system. Joint is a junction between two or more bones or cartilages. It may be movable or immovable. The human skeleton can be divided into the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton is formed by the vertebral column, the skull, the rib cage and other associated bones. The appendicular skeleton consists of the pelvic girdle, the shoulder girdle and the bones of the upper and lower limbs.
The integumentary System comprises of the skin and its adornment structures including hair, nails and organs and in addition veins, muscles and nerves. The skin covers the body and is the biggest organ of our body. Normal maladies and wounds to the skin incorporate Rashes, Blister, Infection, Sunburn, and Skin Cancer and so on.
Functions of the skin: