Orthopedic surgery or Orthopedics, also spelled Orthopaedics, is the branch of Surgery focussed with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, spine diseases, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital disorders. Numerous orthopaedic surgeons elect to do further training, or fellowships, after accomplishing their residency Practise.
One of the most significant orthopedic health problems in present day life is low back pain,which can be caused by Continous and Stressful activities, improper use and exposure to continual vibrations. Traumas or injuries to the back can cause chronic low back pain and worsening of the vertebrae is a definite cause of low back pain. If you are obese or have poor muscles tone you will experience low back pain and sprain that continually hurts. Studies have shown that smokers have increase occurrences of this type of orthopedic pain.
Many orthopedic surgeons elect to do further training, or fellowships, after completing their residency training. Fellowship training in an orthopedic sub-specialty is typically one year in duration (sometimes two) and sometimes has a research component involved with the clinical and operative training. Provides the most advanced spinal surgery service based on evidence based techniques and research in the field of spinal surgery, and deals with the most critical spinal conditions amongst other orthopedics conditions. In Dubai spinal surgery clinic they cover: Joint Arthroscopy, Shoulder arthroscopy, Knee arthroscopy, Ankle arthroscopy,Knee Surgery & Replacement
Expert treatment for Sport Injuries:
Orthotics and Prosthetics:
Orthotics is a specialty within the medical field concerned with the design, manufacture and application of orthoses. An orthosis is "an externally applied device used to modify the structural and functional characteristics of the neuromuscular and skeletal system". An orthotist is the primary medical clinician responsible for the prescription, manufacture and management of orthoses. An orthosis may be used to:
· Control, guide, limit and/or immobilize an extremity, joint or body segment for a particular reason
· Restrict movement in a given direction
·Assist movement generally
Prosthetic should be made lightweight to have a better convenience for the amputee. some of these materials include:
Musculoskeletal Injury and Repair:
symptoms of Musculoskeletal Injury:
Repair of Musculoskeletal Injury:
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone. It is the most common reason for a broken bone among the elderly. Bones that commonly break include the vertebrae in the spine, the bones of the forearm, and the hip.
Until a broken bone occurs there are typically no symptoms. Bones may weaken to such a degree that a break may occur with minor stress or spontaneously. Chronic pain and a decreased ability to carry out normal activities may occur following a broken bone
Prevention of osteoporosis includes a proper diet during childhood and efforts to avoid medications that cause the condition. Efforts to prevent broken bones in those with osteoporosis include a good diet, exercise, and fall prevention. Lifestyle changes such as stopping smoking and not drinking alcohol may help.
Regenerative Medical Interventions:
Physical therapy contrivances for use in treatment of minor muscle, ligament, joint and similar injuries to promote healing and comfort during periods of both physical activity and physical inactivity comprising generally sleeve-like wraps of a heat-retaining composite material of resilient foam bonded between a single-jersey knit cover and a pile-surface inner knit fabric which stimulates the skin surface, wicks perspiration away from the skin surface and permits circulation of air adjacent to the skin surface beneath the foam layer.Classifications are Bandages or Dressings, Absorbent pads specially adopted for fingers, hands or arms, finger stalls ,nail protectors
Surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment in Musculoskeletal tumours but it is difficult to treat the patients with a certain high grade tumours by Surgery alone. Adjuvant modalities like Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy play an essential part in the integrated management of the patients.
Goals of Chemotherapy: Curative intent, Control, Palliation.
Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Arthritis is a rheumatic disease that has symptoms of pain, limited movement, swelling and pain in connective tissues. Many of the causes of arthritis are unknown.
Osteoarticular mycoses due to non-Aspergillus moulds are uncommon and challenging infections. For a child with a suspected bone or joint infection, knowledge of the workup and initial therapy is important to provide quality care. Fever and pain are hallmarks of a pediatric osteoarticular infection, although occasionally the signs and symptoms can be more subtle. The use of C-reactive protein to diagnose and validate effective management of treatment has become standard.
Non-Aspergillus osteoarticular mycoses occur most frequently in children after injury and in adults after surgery. Accurate early diagnosis and long-course therapy with a combined medical-surgical approach may result in favorable outcome.
Arthroplasty is surgery where the articular surface of a musculoskeletal joint is replaced, remodeled, or realigned by osteotomy or some other procedure. It is an elective procedure that is done to relieve pain and restore function to the joint after damage by arthritis (rheumasurgery) or some other type of trauma.
As well as the standard total knee replacement surgery, the uni-compartmental knee replacement, in which only one weight-bearing surface of an arthritic knee is replaced, is a popular alternative. One of the main problems with joint replacements is wear of the bearing surfaces of components. This can lead to damage to surrounding bone and contribute to eventual failure of the implant. Use of substituent bearing surfaces has increased in recent years, particularly in younger patients, in an attempt to improve the wear characteristics of joint replacement components.
Chondrogenic and Osteogenic Tumors
Chondroblastomas can sometimes form, which are benign tumors that form at the sites of endochondral ossification due to over stimulation of the chondroblasts. When they form, they are usually found on the upper or lower tibia as well as the upper humerus where chondroblast activity is most apparent. Rarely, they can be found on the feet, hands, flat bones, or spine. 30-50% of these sarcomas have an accompanying osteoblastoma which is similarly benign.
Chondrosarcoma is a more malignant type of tumor, but most are low grade tumors and often appear in the axial skeletal region. It constitutes 20% of skeletal system tumors in the United States.
Osteosarcomas tend to occur at the sites of bone growth, presumably because proliferation makes osteoblastic cells in this region prone to acquire mutations that could lead to transformation of cells (the RB gene and p53 gene are commonly involved). Due to this tendency, high incidence of osteosarcoma is seen in some large dog breeds.The tumor may be localized at the end of the long bone (commonly in the metaphysis). Most often it affects the proximal end of tibia or humerus, or distal end of femur. Osteosarcoma tends to affect regions around the knee in 60% of cases, 15% around the hip, 10% at the shoulder, and 8% in the Jaw. The tumor is solid, hard, irregular due to the tumor spicules of calcified bone radiating in right angles. These right angles form what is known as a Codman triangle, which is characteristic but not diagnostic of osteosarcoma. Surrounding tissues are infiltrated.
Stem cells for orthopaedics conditions
Stem cells are naturally occurring cells in your body that have the capability to differentiate (turn into a specific type of cell). They also have the capability to promote the repair and regenerate a variety of damaged tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells are a particular category of cells that can produce bone, cartilage, ligament, and tendon tissues. These cells produce a variety of chemicals (growth factors and cytokines) that signal other cells to repair, decrease inflammation, and inhibit the breakdown of tissues. These cells are in high concentration in certain parts of your body, including your bone marrow. A variety of techniques for using biologic agents and stem cells have been utilized in various centers around the world. Some specific conditions that can be treated with stem cell therapy include:
Exercise and sports medicine:
·Injury to the musculoskeletal system and orthopaedic disorder can be prevented if control measures, exercising, and being aware of lifting, running, walking and working issues.
A safe workplace that emphasizes musculoskeletal or orthopaedic injuries is important. Preventing injuries in the workplace consists of evaluating the safety hazards and correcting. Have the proper comfortable setups at your workstation. Repetitive strain injuries are an orthopaedic risk for those who work in office situations.
Lifting and moving heavy objects is a definite problem in workplace situations and cause orthopaedic disorders.
A Born deformity, is a major abnormality in the shape of a body part or organ compared to the normal shape of that part in the foetus. It is caused by genetic mutation, damage of the foetus or uterus, complications at birth, a growth or hormone disorder. It can be treated with reconstructive surgery. Reconstructive surgery is, in its broadest sense, the use of surgery to bring back the form and function of the body; maxillo-facialsurgeons, plastic surgeons, and otolaryngologists do reconstructive surgery on faces after trauma and to reconstruct the head and neck after malignancy. Reconstructive surgeons use the concept of a reconstructive ladder to manage increasingly complicated wounds. This ranges from very simple techniques such as primary closure and dressings to more complex skin grafts, tissue expansion, and free flaps. Biomaterials are, in their simplest form, plastic implants used to precise or replace damaged body parts. A successful implantation can best be achieved by a team that understands not only the anatomical, physiological, biochemical, and pathological aspects of the problem, but also comprehends bioengineering. Cellular and tissue engineering is necessary to know for reconstructive procedures.
A Pediatric Orthopedist is the skilled and most trained doctor to properly figure out and analyze musculoskeletal (bone, joint, or muscle) problems in a child who is still growing. This includes newborn babies through teenagers.
A child's musculoskeletal problems are unique from those of an adult. Because children are still growing, the body's response to injuries, infections, and deformities may be quite different than what would be seen in an adult. Children with complicated pediatric problems are best managed by a medical-surgical team approach. Pediatric orthopaedic surgeons diagnose, treat, and manage children's musculoskeletal problems, such as Limb and spine deformities noted at birth or later in life (clubfoot, scoliosis, limb length differences), Gait abnormalities (limping), Broken bones, Bone or joint infections and tumors