HIV and AIDS have a myriad of effects on sexual and reproductive health and rights, and sexual and reproductive health services are critical for women and men with HIV and AIDS. Yet there has been a dearth of visible, in-depth mainstream attention to the links between sexual and reproductive health and prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS since the early 1990s among major stakeholders internationally. This paper argues that access to essential sexual and reproductive health care should be provided in HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment programmer and appropriate forms of prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS should be included in all sexual and reproductive health services as a public health priority, particularly in sex education, family planning and abortion services, pregnancy-related care, sexually transmitted infection (STI) services and services addressing sexual violence.
Rhetorical acknowledgment of the value of human rights for the AIDS response continues, yet practical application of human rights principles to national efforts appears to be increasingly deficient. We assess the ways in which international and national strategic plans and other core documents take into account the commitments made by countries to uphold human rights in their efforts towards achieving Universal Access. Key documents from the Joint United Nations Program on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria (GFATM) and the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief were reviewed along with 14 national HIV strategic plans chosen for their illustration of the diversity of HIV epidemic patterns, levels of income and geographical location
Blood transfusions are generally considered safe, but there is some risk of complications. Mild complications and rarely severe ones can occur during the transfusion or several days or more after.
The search for a preventive immunization that can stop the worldwide pandemic is a definitive objective of HIV research. Improvement of an immunization against HIV-1 has been tormented by numerous outlandish difficulties. Distinctive immunization ideas have been tried to conquer these difficulties. Trial immunizations that indicated guarantee in preclinical trials were progressed into clinical trials. However, human trials turned out to be an enormous dissatisfaction until the aftereffects of the RV144 trial in Thailand. Urine tests can be used to test for urethritis in both sexual orientations. Late urination will have washed gonorrheal discharge from the urethra. In this way, to accumulate sufficient discharge, pee tests should be taken no not as much as an hour after the patient's last pee. Vaginal swab illustrations are used to test for cervicitis. Gonorrheal cervicitis produces a satisfactory discharge that swabs require not be taken by speculum examination. Or maybe, they can be assembled unpredictably by the patient herself.
36.7 millions People were living with HIV in 2015; it was 33 million in 2010, the result of continuing new infections, people living longer with HIV. Global prevalence has leveled since 2001 and was 0.8% in 2016.Despite these challenges, new global efforts have been mounted to address the epidemic and there has been significant progress. This HIV online Webinar will also include the topic of Retroviruses diseases. Retroviruses induce diseases that do not fit easily into any of the major categories and different tissues can influence the type of disease that develops the first retrovirus associated with disease was equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). BFU-E and CFU-E contained by anemic cats is very less, and FeLV infection decreases the generation of these precursors in vitro. While murine retroviruses are inactivated by human complement and are not capable of causing human disease.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) originated in Central and West Africa in non-human primates and of two types: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1causes majority of HIV infections globally being more virulent and easily transmitted while HIV-2 which is less transmittable. According to researchers, HIV evolved from the closely related SIV which after post mutation transformed to humans from non-human primates as HIV in form of zoonosis. To determine relatedness, molecular phylogenetic process used comparing viral genomic sequences.
In the uterus, a baby can be infected with HIV. By taking treatments, the percentage of HIV infected babies born to women can be reduced to less and the treatment is received as a low viral load during pregnancy which can reduce the chances of passing HIV from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth. The symptoms of HIV during pregnancy can be rapid weight loss, dry cough, night sweating, swollen lymph glands in the armpits or necks, unusual blemishes on the tongue, in throat or mouth, red or brown blotches on the skin, nose, mouth or eyelids.
As HIV often presents no physical symptoms, it is impossible by looking at someone to know if he or she is infected by HIV. From major reports of HIV positive people, the survival rate has improved. Now they can expect to live as long as someone who doesn’t have HIV by taking antiviral treatment, exercising regularly, eating healthily, managing stress & getting support and avoiding excessive alcohol drug use. Because, once HIV multiplies inside the host cells, his or her immune system will no longer be able to protect the body.
Research on HIV generally aims at preventation, treatment as well as care of AIDS and other HIV related diseases. Research part includes decreasing the side effect of the medicines, further simplification of the drug structure as well as what treatment doctor should recommend for the HIV infected people. Therapy is generally for developing a healthy immune system to decrease the complication.
Chlamydia and gonorrhea are major cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) as well as infertility. Chlamydia can also lead to fallopian tube infection. PID can also cause pregnant damage to the fallopian tubes, uterus and surrounding tissues, which can lead to infertility. By prescribing oral antibiotics like azithromycin (Zithromax) and doxycycline, the infection can be clear up within two to three weeks.
In Sub-Saharan Africa particularly, young girls and women are getting affected by HIV. Inequalities between the genders make girls more vulnerable and prone to HIV and other related diseases. These inequalities arise due to cultural, social as well as economic issues. In many cases, biased social and cultural norms are interpreted into laws which act as blockades to HIV services for women, increasing their helplessness to HIV.
HIV reproduces and mutates so fast, that antibodies produced against the virus quickly get ineffective against newer viruses. This is why stimulating antibody production can’t clear the infection. HIV has various sub-types like type-B, type-C etc. found in different region. The vaccine to be develop must be effective against all sub-types of HIV. RV144 vaccine is now being tested. Imbokodo is testing a prime-boost vaccine. Jassen tested a vaccine on 2600 women aged 18 to 35 and the results are expected by 2022.
STD & STI can cause severe damage to the body, which can also result in death. These are caused by bacterial & viral infection. Especially teenagers and adult needs to take care the proper preventions and protection to avoid any disease related to this. Antiviral drugs are to be taken as a daily suppressive therapy with prescription. People with STDs or STIs should go for prevention and also go for yearly checkup and test.
The goal of Sustainable Development for 2030 reflects the complexity of the modern life as well as the side effect of all these. As we all know HIV cannot be ended without addressing the issue of health and vulnerability. People living with this epidemic are often live in fragile communities and are most affected by the inequality and discrimination. The SDG set the goal to end this and we all should be a part of that goal.
In choosing a method of contraception, dual protection from the simultaneous risk for HIV and other STDs also should be considered. Although hormonal contraceptives and IUDs are highly effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against STDs, including HIV. Consistent and correct use of the male latex condom reduces the risk for HIV infection and other STDs, including chlamydial infection, gonococcal infection, and trichomoniasis.
With speedy implementation of effective prevention and treatment tools we have achieved a lot of reduction in cases related to HIV, STD as well as STI. However given the range of the epidemic we need to look for the effective and safe HIV vaccine. Also providing a realistic and cost-effective means of treatment for the whole population will be a great achievement. We all should work towards a world without HIV and diseases resulting out of it.