Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) originated in Central and West Africa in non-human primates and of two types: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1causes majority of HIV infections globally being more virulent and easily transmitted while HIV-2 which is less transmittable. According to researchers, HIV evolved from the closely related SIV which after post mutation transformed to humans from non-human primates as HIV in form of zoonosis. To determine relatedness, molecular phylogenetic process used comparing viral genomic sequences.
AIDS is like that of a chronic disease as both of them generally can’t be prevented by vaccines or cured by medication persisting for a long time even they don’t disappear but however, some antiviral drugs can effect against the virus preventing transmission in case HIV but, there is an increase in HIV level and decrease in number of CD4 cells during chronic HIV infection.
In the uterus, a baby can be infected with HIV. By taking treatments, the percentage of HIV infected babies born to women can be reduced to less and the treatment is received as a low viral load during pregnancy which can reduce the chances of passing HIV from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth. The symptoms of HIV during pregnancy can be rapid weight loss, dry cough, night sweating, swollen lymph glands in the armpits or necks, unusual blemishes on the tongue, in throat or mouth, red or brown blotches on the skin, nose, mouth or eyelids.
As HIV often presents no physical symptoms, it is impossible by looking at someone to know if he or she is infected by HIV. From major reports of HIV positive people, the survival rate has improved. Now they can expect to live as long as someone who doesn’t have HIV by taking antiviral treatment, exercising regularly, eating healthily, managing stress & getting support and avoiding excessive alcohol drug use. Because, once HIV multiplies inside the host cells, his or her immune system will no longer be able to protect the body.
Research on HIV generally aims at preventation, treatment as well as care of AIDS and other HIV related diseases. Research part includes decreasing the side effect of the medicines, further simplification of the drug structure as well as what treatment doctor should recommend for the HIV infected people. Therapy is generally for developing a healthy immune system to decrease the complication.
Chlamydia and gonorrhea are major cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) as well as infertility. Chlamydia can also lead to fallopian tube infection. PID can also cause pregnant damage to the fallopian tubes, uterus and surrounding tissues, which can lead to infertility. By prescribing oral antibiotics like azithromycin (Zithromax) and doxycycline, the infection can be clear up within two to three weeks.
In Sub-Saharan Africa particularly, young girls and women are getting affected by HIV. Inequalities between the genders make girls more vulnerable and prone to HIV and other related diseases. These inequalities arise due to cultural, social as well as economic issues. In many cases, biased social and cultural norms are interpreted into laws which act as blockades to HIV services for women, increasing their helplessness to HIV.
HIV reproduces and mutates so fast, that antibodies produced against the virus quickly get ineffective against newer viruses. This is why stimulating antibody production can’t clear the infection. HIV has various sub-types like type-B, type-C etc. found in different region. The vaccine to be develop must be effective against all sub-types of HIV. RV144 vaccine is now being tested. Imbokodo is testing a prime-boost vaccine. Jassen tested a vaccine on 2600 women aged 18 to 35 and the results are expected by 2022.
For the treatment of HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is used. Also there is a regular take-up of HIV medicines called HIV treatment regimen being with a combination for the people those are on ART. ART is universal recommended therapy for everyone who has HIV. Although the HIV medicines and ART can’t cure HIV, these medicines help people with HIV to live long and healthy. People with HIV should talk to their health care provider about their life style that can possibly affect with those side-effects before starting HIV medicines.
STD & STI can cause severe damage to the body, which can also result in death. These are caused by bacterial & viral infection. Especially teenagers and adult needs to take care the proper preventions and protection to avoid any disease related to this. Antiviral drugs are to be taken as a daily suppressive therapy with prescription. People with STDs or STIs should go for prevention and also go for yearly checkup and test.
The goal of Sustainable Development for 2030 reflects the complexity of the modern life as well as the side effect of all these. As we all know HIV cannot be ended without addressing the issue of health and vulnerability. People living with this epidemic are often live in fragile communities and are most affected by the inequality and discrimination. The SDG set the goal to end this and we all should be a part of that goal.
With speedy implementation of effective prevention and treatment tools we have achieved a lot of reduction in cases related to HIV, STD as well as STI. However given the range of the epidemic we need to look for the effective and safe HIV vaccine. Also providing a realistic and cost-effective means of treatment for the whole population will be a great achievement. We all should work towards a world without HIV and diseases resulting out of it.