Intestinal problems, such as polyps and cancer, infections, celiac disease, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, diverticulitis, malabsorption, short bowel syndrome, and intestinal ischemia. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, and hiatal hernia.
Children can get cancer in the same parts of the body as adults, but there are differences. Childhood cancers can occur suddenly, without early symptoms, and have a high rate of cure. The most common children's cancer is leukemia. Other cancers that affect children include brain tumors, lymphoma, and soft tissue sarcoma. Symptoms and treatment depend on the cancer type and how advanced it is. Treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, stem cell transplants, and/or targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses drugs or other substances that attack specific cancer cells with less harm to normal cells.
Heart disease is difficult enough when it strikes adults, but it can be especially tragic in children. Many different types of heart problems can affect children. They include congenital heart defects, viral infections that affect the heart, and even heart disease acquired later in childhood due to illnesses or genetic syndromes. The good news is that with advances in medicine and technology, many children with heart disease go on to live active, full lives.
The most common, severe congenital anomalies are heart defects, neural tube defects and Down syndrome. Although congenital anomalies may be the result of one or more genetic, infectious, nutritional or environmental factors, it is often difficult to identify the exact causes. Some congenital anomalies can be prevented.
Middle ear infection affects mostly infants and children, associated with elevated level of S. mutans, which increases the chances of developing caries. This descriptive study was carried out on 120 children aged 5 years and younger. They were selected randomly from schools and medical hospitals. S. mutans was counted from saliva sample and a questionnaire was given to be filled by their parents about the feeding method, pattern and specific childhood illness. S. mutans count was comparatively higher in children having middle ear infection rather than non-infected children, which may cause dental caries in the future.
Imaging plays a major role in the diagnostic work-up of children with hepatobiliary or pancreatic diseases. It consists mainly of US, CT and MRI, with US and MRI being the preferred imaging modalities because of the lack of ionizing radiation. In this review the technique of US, CT and MRI in children will be addressed, followed by a comprehensive overview of the imaging characteristics of several hepatobiliary and pancreatic disease entities most common in the paediatric age group.
Cystic fibrosis is associate genetic disease that causes severe injury to the lungs, system alimentary and alternative organs within the body. Fibrocystic disease of the pancreas affects the cells that turn out mucous secretion, sweat and organic process juices. These secreted fluids square measure commonly skinny and slippery. Though fibrocystic disease of the pancreas needs daily care. Diagnosed at intervals the primary month of life, before symptoms develop. Cystic fibrosis is associate genetic disease. If you are already pregnant and therefore the genetic take a look at shows that the baby could also be in danger of fibrocystic disease of the pancreas, doctor will conduct extra tests on developing kid.
Neurodevelopmental disorders are disabilities associated primarily with the functioning of the neurological system and brain. Examples of neurodevelopmental disorders in children include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, learning disabilities, intellectual disability (also known as mental retardation), conduct disorders, cerebral palsy, and impairments in vision and hearing. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders can experience difficulties with language and speech, motor skills, behavior, memory, learning, or other neurological functions. While the symptoms and behaviors of neurodevelopmental disabilities often change or evolve as a child grows older, some disabilities are permanent. Diagnosis and treatment of these disorders can be difficult; treatment often involves a combination of professional therapy, pharmaceuticals, and home- and school-based programs.
Pediatric metabolic disorders happen when the child’s body is not appropriately processing nutrients such as fats, proteins, or sugars. Often, when young children have a metabolism disorder, it is a genetic condition that is passed down in families. When older children develop a metabolism disorder, it is often due to obesity. This puts the child at a higher risk for diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
A defective gene that develops during fetal (before birth) growth causes lysosomal storage diseases. Children can inherit the gene from one or both parents. The defective gene regulates a particular enzyme in the lysosome, which either is missing or isn't enough to process the excess substances.