The kidneys have always been an object of mystery and study from time immemorial. Every year, the population prevalence of chronic kidney disease exceeds 10% and is more than 50% in high-risk subpopulations. Thus it considers clinical nephrology where Clinical Nephrology is a specialty of medicine that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems, and renal replacement therapy including dialysis and kidney transplantation.
Kidney problems can develop suddenly (acute) or over the long term (chronic). Many conditions, diseases, and medicines can create situations that lead to acute and chronic kidney problems. Acute kidney injury, which used to be called acute renal failure, is more commonly reversible than chronic kidney failure.
Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage kidney disease. Kidney transplantation is typically classified as deceased-donor (formerly known as cadaveric) or living-donor transplantation depending on the source of the donor organ. Living-donor kidney transplants are further characterized as genetically related (living-related) or non-related (living-unrelated) transplants, depending on whether a biological relationship exists between the donor and recipient.
In medicine, dialysis is the process of removing excess water, solutes, and toxins from the blood in people whose kidneys can no longer perform these functions naturally. This is referred to as renal replacement therapy. The 2 types of dialysis are hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.
Nephrology is the scientific study of the kidneys, particularly their functions and diseases, and a nephrologist is a physician who specializes in the kidneys. The kidneys remove waste from the body (via urine), filter toxins from the blood, and help regulate the concentration of certain elements in the blood. Children whose kidneys have become seriously impaired require immediate and specialized medical care. Pediatric Nephrology Services offers comprehensive testing and evaluation of the kidneys to definitively diagnose any problems, as well as to determine the cause.