Diabetes 2019 will focus on metabolic disorder having multiple aetiology. In case of Diabetes mellitus there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period of time and is characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia resulting from either insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The effects of diabetes mellitus with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism include long-term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs .When it became most severe , ketoacidosis or a non-ketotic hyperosmolar state may develop and lead to hypnosis, coma and in the absence of adequate treatment, death will occur.
According to National Diabetes Statistics Report which provides updated statistics about diabetes in the United States for a scientific audience stated that about 30.3 million people have diabetes (9.4% of the US population), out of which 23.1 million people are diagnosed and 7.2 million people are undiagnosed. In case of pre-diabetes, 84.1 million adults aged 18 years or older are suffering (33.9% of the adult US population) and 23.1 million adults aged 65 years or older have pre-diabetes.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) occurs in pregnant women having no diabetic history develop high blood sugar level (diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy that was not clearly overt diabetes prior to gestation). It resembles type 2 diabetes mellitus in many aspects and may occur in 2-10% of all pregnancies but disappear after delivery.
Diabetic Ketoacidosis is a life threatening problem and needs awareness about its prevention. It occurs when body doesn’t produce enough insulin and body cells can’t use sugar in blood for energy then body start using fat as fuel for energy. When the body continue to burn fat, it makes acids called ketones. If this process remains continue for a period of time, it will build up in body and can change the chemical balance of body and will affect the whole body functions. It is seen more in young ones having type 1 diabetes.
Islet or beta cells in the pancreas produced insulin normally. Similarly, as with any long haul condition, a definitive objective for specialists is a cure. In type 1 diabetes, islet transplantation is one approach to accomplish this. Effectively carried out in rats, dogs, monkeys, and humans, this treatment requires the patient to take immunosuppressants to prevent rejection. Stem cell research examines mice is exploring approaches to utilize the body's very own cells and so reduce the chances of rejection.
Gene therapy might be an approach to handle type-2 diabetes, which will in general hit more seasoned, overweight individuals. Utilizing rats and dogs, researchers found a chemical which obstructs the breakdown of proteins expected to make insulin. The substance is presently entering clinical preliminaries.
Hyperglycaemia or high glucose is a condition in which an exorbitant amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. This is basically a glucose level higher than 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl), yet side effects may not begin to wind up perceptible until considerably higher qualities, such as 15– 20 mmol/l (~250– 300 mg/dl). A person is considered hyperglycemic if the blood sugar level fall in the range of ~5.6 and ~7 mmol/l (100–126 mg/dl)(American Diabetes Association guidelines), while above 7 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) is generally considered to have diabetes.
About less than 5% of all type 2 diabetes cases generally occurs before 25 years of age is MODY and is characterized by no evidence of beta cell autoimmunity, absence of obesity and slow onset of other symptoms. MODY extending across three generations is an autosomal dominant pattern inheritance and due to advances in molecular genetics ,it has been found that there are at least six forms of MODY, each caused by mutation in a different gene.
There is no permanent way to prevent Type 1 diabetes at present. Only the lifelong insulin injections are available for this disease. A cure for type 1 diabetes is currently unavailable. Genetics currently play no major role in the treatment or management of diabetes whereas type 2 diabetes can be prevented by maintaining age appropriate body weight and by following physical activities.
Now-a-days there are many new techinques which is currently used for the treatment of diabetes. Diabetes 2019 will surely focus on them.
Reprogramming skin cells: In a laboratory, Skin cells were grown in a culture medium to develop into specialized beta cells, which produces insulin. This process will lead to new treatments for patients with diabetes using their own skin cells.
Islet cell transplants: This study focuses on islet transplant in which clusters of insulin producing beta cells that live in islets are taken from a donor pancreas and implanted in the recepient’s liver to make insulin.
Gut hormones: Gut hormones such as Incretins which are involved in controlling the rise of blood glucose after eating.
Diabetes 2019 will discuss about the new drugs in clinical trials for the treatment of diabetes. There are medicines given below in the treatment of diabetes besides the fact that some of them has many side-effects.
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus
- Short acting insulin
- Rapid acting insulins
- Intermediate acting insulins
- Long acting insulins
- Combination insulins
- Amylinomimetic drugs
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus
- Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
- Dopamine agonist
- DPP-4 inhibitors
- Glucagon-like peptides
- Sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitor