Drugs discovery typically involves either identification of active substances from traditional remedies of a natural origin or the synthesis of bioactive compounds guided by rational drug design, combinatorial chemistry, high throughput screening, fragment-based lead discovery, and other approaches. In modern drug discovery, medicinal chemistry plays an important role, covering new methods for the synthesis of bioactive compounds, the identification of drug gable bimolecular targets, understanding molecular basis for diseases, and therefore the design of agents modifying biochemical processes underlying the disorder. This Special Issue aims to spotlight the recent achievements within
The truth is that modern medicine is desperately in need of new treatments. It takes years for a replacement drug to urge through the research and development pipeline to manufacture and therefore the cost is gigantic. Estimates suggest up to 80 per cent of the population has tried a therapy like acupuncture or homeopathy. And a survey conducted earlier this year found that 74 per cent folks medical students believe that western medicine would benefit by integrating traditional or alternative therapies and practices. Example –artemisinin, which is extracted from Artemisia annual or Chinese Artemisia annual, is that the basis for the foremost effective malaria drugs the planet has ever seen. But making traditional medicine truly mainstream-incorporating its knowledge into modern healthcare and ensuring it meets modern safety and efficacy standard-is not any easy task and is far from complete.
Computer-aided drug design (CADD) has been credited to the fashionable patterns in compound characterization in drug discovery following its inception in 1981. It represents advancement in comparison to HTS because it requires minimal compound design or prior knowledge, but can yield multiple hit compounds among which promising candidates are elected. The typical role of CADD in drug discovery is to sort large compound libraries into smaller clusters of predicted active compounds, enabling optimization of lead compounds by improving the biological properties (like affinity and ADMET) and building chemo types from a nucleating site by combining fragments with optimized function. Clustering has been applied as a way to pick representatives from screening libraries. Screening hits include molecules that specifically bind to the target additionally to a greater number of nonspecific compounds requiring a triaging process to filter these out. Thus, such an outsized library that contains variety of possible hits is further downsized and clustered into series.
Frontiers in Drug, Chemistry and Clinical Research deals with the aspects of drug, Chemistry and research in clinical field. Medicinal chemistry is an international peer-reviewed journal with expedited processing times presenting the very latest research results related to novel and established drug molecules, the evaluation of new drug development. And Chemistry is a branch of science that involves the study of the composition, structure and properties of matter. Often known as the central science, it is a creative discipline chiefly concerned with atomic and molecular structure and its change, for instance through chemical reactions. Medicinal chemistry Journal accepted study related subjects for chemistry such as analytical chemistry, Biochemistry, Biosynthesis, Catalysis, Chemical biology, Chemical education, Cheminformatics and many more. Clinical research is a branch of healthcare science that determines the safety and effectiveness (efficacy) of medications, devices, diagnostic products and treatment regimens intended for human use. These may be used for prevention, treatment, diagnosis or for relieving symptoms of a disease. Clinical research evidence is collected to establish a treatment.
Medicinal plants have special importance around the world. Further, they have been noticed for nutrition and illness treatment such as preparation of anticancer new drugs. Therefore, a wide range of studies have been done on different plants, and their anticancer effects have been investigated. Nowadays, cancer is the most important factor of death rate in the developed and developing countries. Among them, stomach cancer is one of the most common malignancies around the world. At present, it is recognized as the fourth common cancer and the second factor of death rate due to cancer. So far, there has been wide range of effort for cancer treatment; however, in most cases, the response to the treatment has been very weak and often accompanied improper subsidiary effects. The present problems as a consequence of chemical treatment and radiotherapy and many subsidiary problems created due to their use for patients, and also, the resistance to the current treatment has motivated researchers to apply new medicines with more effect and less toxicity. The secondary metabolisms existent in the plants have an important role in the treatment of several diseases such as cancer. This study was conducted to investigate and collect scientific results for stomach cancer and to clarify the role of medicinal plants and secondary plant compounds on its treatment.
Drug-drug, drug-formulation and drug-meal interactions are of clinical concern for orally administered drugs that possess a narrow therapeutic index. This review presents the current status of information regarding interactions which may influence the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of orally administered drugs. Absorption interactions have been classified on the basis of rate-limiting processes. These processes are put in the context of drug and formulation physicochemical properties and oral input influences on variable GI physiology. Interaction categorisation makes use of a biopharmaceutical classification system based on drug aqueous solubility and membrane permeability and their contributions towards absorption variability. Overlaying this classification it is important to be aware of the effect that the magnitudes of drug dosage and volume of fluid administration can have on interactions involving a solubility rate limits
Pharmaceutical technology is application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy, pharmacology, and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures and in the treatment of patients. The ‘’Pharmaceutical Technology, Manufacturing, and Devices’’ section of the open-access journal Pharmaceutics will publish novel, original, peer-reviewed research manuscripts, short communications, and invited topical reviews in all areas of Pharmaceutical Technology, and on fundamental and applied research in the field of manufacturing and the development of new drug delivery devices. In particular (but not exclusively), this Section invites contributions that report on the following topics
Since the early 2000s, industry leaders, observers, and policy makers have been declaring that there is an innovation crisis in pharmaceutical research. The $400 billion a year drug industry is suddenly in serious trouble.â€1Â Four years later, a US Government Accounting Office assessment of new drug development reported that â€œover the past several years it has become widely recognized throughout the industry that the productivity of its research and development expenditures has been declining.â€2Â In 2010, Morgan Stanley reported that top executives felt they could not â€œbeat the innovation crisisâ€ and proposed that the best way to deal with â€œa decade of dismal R&D returnsâ€ was for the major companies to stop trying to discover new drugs and buy into discoveries by others.3Â Such reports continue and raise the spectre that the pipeline for new drugs will soon run dry and we will be left to the mercies of whatever ills befall us.
Natural products continue to provide a diverse and unique source of bioactive lead compounds for drug discovery, but maintaining their continued eminence as source compounds is challenging in the face of the changing face of the pharmaceutical industry and the changing nature of biodiversity prospecting brought about by the Convention on Biological Diversity. This review provides an overview of some of these challenges and suggests ways in which they can be addressed so that natural products research can remain a viable and productive route to drug discovery. Results from International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBGs) working in Madagascar, Panama, and Suriname are used as examples of what can be achieved when biodiversity conservation is linked to drug discovery.
Drug Design, usually specific to as rational drug design or just rational design, is that the creative method of finding new medications supported the data of a biological sciences target. The drug is most ordinarily associate degree oranic little molecule that activates or inhibits the perform of a biomolecule like a macromolecule orgganic chemistry, that successively ends up in a therapeutic profit to the patient. Within the modest sense, drug design involves the planning of molecules that are opposite in form and charge to the bio molecular target with that they move and thus can bind to that. Drug design of times however not essentially depends on laptop modelling techniques. This sort of modelling is typically observed as computer-aided drug design.
Biopharmaceuticals are medical drugs produced using biotechnology. They are proteins (including antibodies), nucleic acids (DNA, RNA or antisense oligonucleotides) used for therapeutic or in vivo diagnostic purposes, and are produced by means other than direct extraction from a native (non-engineered) biological source. The large majority of biopharmaceutical products are pharmaceuticals that are derived from life forms. Small molecule drugs are not typically regarded as biopharmaceutical in nature by the industry. However members of the press and the business and financial community often extend the definition to include pharmaceuticals not created through biotechnology. That is, the term has become an oft-used buzzword for a variety of different companies producing new, apparently high-tech pharmaceutical products. When a biopharmaceutical is developed, the company will typically apply for a patent, which is a grant for exclusive manufacturing rights. This is the primary means by which the developer of the drug can recover the investment cost for development of the biopharmaceutical.
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins. Proteins are vital parts of living organisms, with many functions. The proteome is the entire set of proteins that is produced or modified by an organism or system. Proteomics has enabled the identification of ever increasing numbers of protein. This varies with time and distinct requirements, or stresses, that a cell or organism undergoes. Proteomics is an interdisciplinary domain that has benefitted greatly from the genetic information of various genome projects, including the Human Genome Project. It covers the exploration of proteomes from the overall level of protein composition, structure, and activity. It is an important component of functional genomics. Proteomics generally refers to the large-scale experimental analysis of proteins and proteomes, but often is used specifically to refer to protein purification and mass spectrometry.
Bio therapeutics are currently the fastest growing group of pharmaceuticals, being a treatment option for a variety of chronic and sometimes life-threatening conditions. Bio therapeutics drugs, such as antibodies, Fe-like fusion proteins, and therapeutic replacement enzymes, constitute the most rapidly growing drug class, and have become a major clinical success of therapeutics over the past decade. The therapeutics of large-molecule has revolutionized the treatment of variety of diseases in areas such as oncology, inflammatory and autoimmune disease, haemophilia, cardiovascular disease, infection and rare disease.