Pharmaceutical sciences combine a broad range of scientific disciplines that are involved with the design, action, delivery, disposition and use of drugs. This field draws on numerous regions of the essential and connected sciences, for example, science, science, the study of disease transmission, measurements, chemometrics, arithmetic, material science and compound building and applies their standards to the investigation of medications.
Routes of drug delivery
Pharmacognosy is a branch of Science concerned with medicinal drugs obtained from plants and natural sources. By using of Plants to manufacturing medicinal, herbal and basic nutrition drugs and it is study of drugs from plants includes the subjects of botany, chemistry and pharmacology. It is high quality research (Primary) on Plant Science, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medical Plants, Toxic Plants, Natural Products discovery and evaluation, Cell and Molecular Plant Biology, Ethnobotany, Plant Anatomy, and Optional research on Metabolites, Plant Nutrition, Traditional Medicine, Biological assessment of unrefined concentrates, fundamental oils and unadulterated confines, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and Phytopharmacological Activities.
Phytochemistry deals with the chemicals that are derived from the plants. The biochemical secure from plants is identified, purified, biosynthesized and are used as biologically active compounds in Indian traditional medicine, Chinese medicine. Phytochemical procedure mostly applies to the quality control of Chinese solution, medicinal plants or home grown prescription of different concoction segments, for example, saponins, alkaloids, unpredictable oils, flavonoids and glycosides.
Pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics can assist the physicians achieve the target of personalized medicine. Personalized medicine will come to mean not just the right drug for the right individual, but the right drug for the specific infection disease influence a specific individual. It is a major challenge in current clinical practice, drug development, and drug regulation. For more than 5 decades, studies of pharmacogenetics have provided ample examples of causal relations between genotypes and drug response to account for phenotypic variations of clinical importance in drug therapy.
Drug Discovery changes with the change in the dosage forms and the environmental conditions or demand. Drug development faces the double challenge of increasing costs and increasing pressure on pricing. Medication configuration includes the plan of such particles that are like the bio sub-atomic objective site fit as a fiddle and charge so as to tie to it. To avoid that lack of perceived commercial perspective will leave existing medical needs unmet, pharmaceutical companies and many other stakeholders are discussing ways to improve the efficiency of drug Research and Development.
Biomarkers in drug discovery
Genetics in drug development
Computer – aided drug design
Ligand –based drug design
Rational drug design approach
Pharmaceutical manufacturing is the procedure of pharmaceutical drugs by pharmaceutical manufacturing companies. It is under constant pressure to fast-track innovation and increase the speed at which they introduce successful drugs to market. The days of big pharmaceutical companies owning many manufacturing plants are slowly ending, and every company, no matter what size, is looking for ways to lessen costs to survive in an increasingly tough and unpredictable economic climate.
Pharmacoeconomics is analysed as a part of decision processes at several stages of drug development and drug marketing. Greater challenges in decision-making coupled with improvements in the techniques of pharmacoeconomic research point to a greater role for pharmacoeconomics into the new millennium. This in turn will have consequences for companies in the pharmaceutical industry.
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biological medical product, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources. Drugs are substances intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease. Different from totally synthesized pharmaceuticals, they include vaccines, blood, blood components, allergenics, somatic cells, gene therapies, tissues, recombinant therapeutic protein, and living cells used in cell therapy. A biologic is manufactured in a living system such as a microorganism, or plant or animal cells. Most biologics are very large, complex molecules or mixtures of molecules. Many biologics are produced using recombinant DNA technology.
Synthesis of Vaccines, blood and blood components
Biologics: Sugars, proteins, or nucleic acids
Green chemistry, also called sustainable chemistry, Green chemistry can be define as the practice of chemical science and manufacturing in a manner that is sustainable, safer, and non-polluting and that consumes minimum amount of materials and energy while producing little or no waste materials. As a chemical philosophy, green chemistry applies to organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry and even chemical engineering. The practice of Green chemistry begins with recognition that the production, processing, use and eventual disposal of chemical products may cause harm when performed incorrectly.
Solvent Use and Waste Issues
Solvent Use and Waste Issues
Environmental and Regulatory Aspects
Green Technologies in the Pharmaceutical Industry
Future Trends for Green Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry
Heterocyclic chemistry is the branch of organic chemistry dealing with the synthesis, properties, and applications of these heterocycles. Heterocyclic chemistry is undergoing a dramatic change with the coming of organometallic reactions for the construction of heterocycles and for carbosubstitution. Heterocyclic compounds include many of the biochemical material essential to life. Many naturally occurring pigments, vitamins, and antibiotics are heterocyclic compounds, as are most hallucinogens. Heterocyclic compounds are of very much interest in our daily life. Heterocyclic compounds have one or more hetero atoms in their structure. They may be cyclic or non-cyclic in nature. Heterocyclic compounds have a wide range of application. They are predominantly used as pharmaceuticals, as agrochemicals and as veterinary products. They also find applications as sanitizers, developers, antioxidants, as corrosion inhibitors, as copolymers, dye stuff.
Organic and Inorganic Chemistry are sub disciplines within chemistry. In organic chemistry, scientific study is concentrated towards carbon compounds and other carbon-based compounds such as hydrocarbons and their derivatives. Inorganic Chemistry is concerned in the scientific study of all the chemical compounds except the carbon group. When we say scientific study of organic or inorganic chemistry, this includes the study of structure, composition, preparation, properties, and study of reactions. Organic chemistry includes stereochemistry, photochemistry isomerization, hydrogenation, polymerization, and fermentation. Inorganic chemistry includes crystallography, electrochemistry, atomic structure, chemical bonding, ceramics and acid-base reactions.
Nanomedicine is a branch of medicine that applies the knowledge and tools of nanotechnology to the prevention and treatment of disease. This is especially noteworthy in the development of new drug substances and products. This review focuses on the introduction of nanomedicines in the pharmaceutical market, and all the controversy associated to basic concepts related to these nano systems, and the numerous methodologies applied for enhanced knowledge. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials and biological devices, its involves the use of nanoscale materials, such as biocompatible nanoparticles and nanorobots, for diagnosis, delivery, sensing or actuation purposes in a living organism.