Pharmaceutical sciences combine a broad range of scientific disciplines that are involved with the design, action, delivery, disposition and use of drugs. This field draws on numerous regions of the essential and connected sciences, for example, science, science, the study of disease transmission, measurements, chemometrics, arithmetic, material science and compound building and applies their standards to the investigation of medications.
Routes of drug delivery
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biological medical product, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources. Drugs are substances intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease. Different from totally synthesized pharmaceuticals, they include vaccines, blood, blood components, allergenics, somatic cells, gene therapies, tissues, recombinant therapeutic protein, and living cells used in cell therapy. A biologic is manufactured in a living system such as a microorganism, or plant or animal cells. Most biologics are very large, complex molecules or mixtures of molecules. Many biologics are produced using recombinant DNA technology.
Synthesis of Vaccines, blood and blood components
Biologics: Sugars, proteins, or nucleic acids
Pharmaceutical manufacturing is the procedure of pharmaceutical drugs by pharmaceutical manufacturing companies. It is under constant pressure to fast-track innovation and increase the speed at which they introduce successful drugs to market. The days of big pharmaceutical companies owning many manufacturing plants are slowly ending, and every company, no matter what size, is looking for ways to lessen costs to survive in an increasingly tough and unpredictable economic climate.
Pharmacoeconomics is analysed as a part of decision processes at several stages of drug development and drug marketing. Greater challenges in decision-making coupled with improvements in the techniques of pharmacoeconomic research point to a greater role for pharmacoeconomics into the new millennium. This in turn will have consequences for companies in the pharmaceutical industry.
Drug Discovery changes with the change in the dosage forms and the environmental conditions or demand. Drug development faces the double challenge of increasing costs and increasing pressure on pricing. Medication configuration includes the plan of such particles that are like the bio sub-atomic objective site fit as a fiddle and charge so as to tie to it. To avoid that lack of perceived commercial perspective will leave existing medical needs unmet, pharmaceutical companies and many other stakeholders are discussing ways to improve the efficiency of drug Research and Development.
Biomarkers in drug discovery
Genetics in drug development
Computer – aided drug design
Ligand –based drug design
Rational drug design approach
Green chemistry, also called sustainable chemistry, Green chemistry can be define as the practice of chemical science and manufacturing in a manner that is sustainable, safer, and non-polluting and that consumes minimum amount of materials and energy while producing little or no waste materials. As a chemical philosophy, green chemistry applies to organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry and even chemical engineering. The practice of Green chemistry begins with recognition that the production, processing, use and eventual disposal of chemical products may cause harm when performed incorrectly.
Solvent Use and Waste Issues
Solvent Use and Waste Issues
Environmental and Regulatory Aspects
Green Technologies in the Pharmaceutical Industry
Future Trends for Green Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry
Heterocyclic chemistry is the branch of organic chemistry dealing with the synthesis, properties, and applications of these heterocycles. Heterocyclic chemistry is undergoing a dramatic change with the coming of organometallic reactions for the construction of heterocycles and for carbosubstitution. Heterocyclic compounds include many of the biochemical material essential to life. Many naturally occurring pigments, vitamins, and antibiotics are heterocyclic compounds, as are most hallucinogens. Heterocyclic compounds are of very much interest in our daily life. Heterocyclic compounds have one or more hetero atoms in their structure. They may be cyclic or non-cyclic in nature. Heterocyclic compounds have a wide range of application. They are predominantly used as pharmaceuticals, as agrochemicals and as veterinary products. They also find applications as sanitizers, developers, antioxidants, as corrosion inhibitors, as copolymers, dye stuff.
Organic and Inorganic Chemistry are sub disciplines within chemistry. In organic chemistry, scientific study is concentrated towards carbon compounds and other carbon-based compounds such as hydrocarbons and their derivatives. Inorganic Chemistry is concerned in the scientific study of all the chemical compounds except the carbon group. When we say scientific study of organic or inorganic chemistry, this includes the study of structure, composition, preparation, properties, and study of reactions. Organic chemistry includes stereochemistry, photochemistry isomerization, hydrogenation, polymerization, and fermentation. Inorganic chemistry includes crystallography, electrochemistry, atomic structure, chemical bonding, ceramics and acid-base reactions.
Medicinal chemistry is a stimulating field as it links many scientific disciplines and allows for collaboration with other scientists in researching and developing new drugs. Medicinal chemists apply their chemistry training to the process of synthesizing new pharmaceuticals. They also improve the processes by which existing pharmaceuticals are made. Medicinal chemists are focused on drug discovery and development and are concerned with the isolation of medicinal agents found in plants, as well as the creation of new synthetic drug compounds.
Nanomedicine is a branch of medicine that applies the knowledge and tools of nanotechnology to the prevention and treatment of disease. This is especially noteworthy in the development of new drug substances and products. This review focuses on the introduction of nanomedicines in the pharmaceutical market, and all the controversy associated to basic concepts related to these nano systems, and the numerous methodologies applied for enhanced knowledge. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials and biological devices, its involves the use of nanoscale materials, such as biocompatible nanoparticles and nanorobots, for diagnosis, delivery, sensing or actuation purposes in a living organism.
Computational modelling has gained an increasingly important role in biochemical and biomolecular sciences over the past decades. This is related to significant developments in terms of methodology and software, as well as the amazing technological advances in computational hardware, and fruitful connections across different disciplines. Computational chemists develop and apply computer programs to answer key questions in biochemistry. They model, predict, visualize, and analyze the structures, functions, and interactions of biologically important molecules. In structure-based drug discovery and rational design, researchers seek to find and create small molecules (ligands) that selectively bind to proteins involved in disease processes to therapeutically alter their activity.