Organic and Inorganic Chemistry are sub disciplines within chemistry. In organic chemistry, scientific study is concentrated towards carbon compounds and other carbon-based compounds such as hydrocarbons and their derivatives. Inorganic Chemistry is concerned in the scientific study of all the chemical compounds except the carbon group. When we say scientific study of organic or inorganic chemistry, this includes the study of structure, composition, preparation, properties, and study of reactions. Organic chemistry includes stereochemistry, photochemistry isomerization, hydrogenation, polymerization, and fermentation. Inorganic chemistry includes crystallography, electrochemistry, atomic structure, chemical bonding, ceramics and acid-base reactions.
Biopharmaceutics is the study of the chemical and physical properties of drugs, their components, and their activities in living organisms. Because of the way they are made, these agents are often called biotech drugs and include therapeutic peptides and proteins, antibodies, oligonucleotides and nucleic acid derivatives, and DNA preparations. Biopharmaceuticals are part of a broader category of therapeutic agents called biologics, defined as any therapeutic agent manufactured in living systems such as microorganisms, or animal and plant cells. Biologics not only include biopharmaceuticals, but also blood and blood components, vaccines, and other biomolecules extracted directly from natural sources.
Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy deals with the application of drug treatments to patients in a hospital or clinical setting. The study of pharmacy involves the effective recommendation and administration of various medications for the safety and health of patients. Clinical or hospital pharmacy is a specialization of this field that includes additional duties such as aiding doctors in applying drug therapies. Hospital pharmacy is the health care service, which comprises the art, practice, and profession of choosing, preparing, storing, compounding, and dispensing medicines and medical devices, advising healthcare professionals and patients on their safe, effective and efficient use. Hospital pharmacy is a specialized field of pharmacy which forms an integrated part of patient health care in a health facility.
Computational modelling has gained an increasingly important role in biochemical and biomolecular sciences over the past decades. This is related to significant developments in terms of methodology and software, as well as the amazing technological advances in computational hardware, and fruitful connections across different disciplines. Computational chemists develop and apply computer programs to answer key questions in biochemistry. They model, predict, visualize, and analyze the structures, functions, and interactions of biologically important molecules. In structure-based drug discovery and rational design, researchers seek to find and create small molecules (ligands) that selectively bind to proteins involved in disease processes to therapeutically alter their activity.
Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals. For the treatment of human diseases, nasal and pulmonary routes of drug delivery are gaining increasing importance. These routes provide promising alternatives to parenteral drug delivery particularly for peptide and protein therapeutics. For this purpose, several drug delivery systems have been formulated and are being investigated for nasal and pulmonary delivery. These include liposomes, proliposomes, microspheres, gels, prodrugs, cyclodextrins, among others. Nanoparticles composed of biodegradable polymers show assurance in fulfilling the stringent requirements placed on these delivery systems, such as ability to be transferred into an aerosol, stability against forces generated during aerosolization, biocompatibility, targeting of specific sites or cell populations in the lung, release of the drug in a predetermined manner, and degradation within an acceptable period of time.
Drug design, often referred to as rational drug design or simply rational design, is the inventive process of finding new medications based on the knowledge of a biological target. The drug is most commonly an organic small molecule that activates or inhibits the function of a biomolecule such as a protein, which in turn results in a therapeutic benefit to the patient. In the most basic sense, drug design involves the design of molecules that are complementary in shape and charge to the biomolecular target with which they interact and therefore will bind to it. Unique work on structure-based drug design, covering multiple aspects of drug discovery and development. Fully colored, many images, computer animations of 3D structures (these only in electronic form).
Researchers discover new drugs through: New insights into a disease process that allow researchers to design a product to stop or reverse the effects of the disease, Many tests of molecular compounds to find possible beneficial effects against any of a large number of diseases, Existing treatments that have unanticipated effects, New technologies, such as those that provide new ways to target medical products to specific sites within the body or to manipulate genetic material. At this stage in the process, thousands of compounds may be potential candidates for development as a medical treatment.
Pharmaceutical formulation, in pharmaceutics, is the process in which different chemical substances, including the active drug, are combined to produce a final medicinal product. Formulation studies involve developing a preparation of the drug which is both stable and acceptable to the patient. For orally administered drugs, this usually involves incorporating the drug into a tablet or a capsule. It is important to make the distinction that a tablet contains a variety of other potentially inert substances apart from the drug itself, and studies have to be carried out to ensure that the encapsulated drug is compatible with these other substances in a way that does not cause harm, whether direct or indirect.
Green Chemistry, also called sustainable chemistry, is a philosophy of chemical research and engineering that encourages the design of product and processes that minimize the use and generation of hazardous substances. As a chemical philosophy, green chemistry applies to organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry and even chemical engineering. Green Chemistry is a tool, which when implemented right, can help the industry achieve its environmental goals. Broadly defined as the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, green chemistry allows companies to develop better products through sustainable processes.
Heterocyclic chemistry is the branch of organic chemistry dealing with the synthesis, properties, and applications of these heterocycles. Examples of heterocyclic compounds include all of the nucleic acids, the majority of drugs, most biomass (cellulose and related materials), and many natural and synthetic dyes. Heterocyclic compounds are of very much interest in our daily life. Heterocyclic compounds have one or more hetero atoms in their structure. They may be cyclic or non-cyclic in nature. Heterocyclic compounds have a wide range of application. They are predominantly used as pharmaceuticals, as agrochemicals and as veterinary products. They also find applications as sanitizers, developers, antioxidants, as corrosion inhibitors, as copolymers, dye stuff. They are used as vehicles in the synthesis of other organic compounds. Some of the natural products e.g. antibiotics such as penicillin’s, cephalosporin; alkaloids such as vinblastine, morphine, reserpine etc. have heterocyclic moiety.
Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology which made its debut with greatly increased possibilities in the field of medicine. Nanomedicine desires to deliver research tools and clinically reformative devices in the near future. Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. It is the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering.
Neuropharmacology is a science concerned with drug-induced changes in the functioning of cells in the nervous system while psychopharmacology is the branch of pharmacology which related to the psychoactive aspects of drugs.
Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues. Tissue engineering involves the use of a scaffold for the formation of new viable tissue for a medical purpose.
Physicochemical and biological factors that contribute to drug action, Medicinal Radio compounds or Radiopharmaceuticals, Global Pharmaceutical Policy, Impurities and Impurity Profile Significance in API, Design of Safer Chemicals and Products, In vivo and in vitro biotransformations of drugs.
Medicinal chemistry is a stimulating field as it links many scientific disciplines and allows for collaboration with other scientists in researching and developing new drugs. Medicinal chemists apply their chemistry training to the process of synthesizing new pharmaceuticals. They also improve the processes by which existing pharmaceuticals are made. Medicinal chemists are focused on drug discovery and development and are concerned with the isolation of medicinal agents found in plants, as well as the creation of new synthetic drug compounds.