Neuropharmacology is the study of how drugs affect cellular function in the nervous system, and the neural mechanisms through which they influence behaviour. There are two main branches of neuropharmacology: behavioural and molecular. Behavioural neuropharmacology focuses on the study of how drugs affect human behaviour (neuropsychopharmacology), including the study of how drug dependence and addiction affect the human brain.
Toxicology is the scientific study of adverse effects that occur in living organisms due to chemicals. It involves observing and reporting symptoms, mechanisms, detection and treatments of toxic substances, in particular relation to the poisoning of humans. It includes environmental agents and chemical compounds found in nature, as well as pharmaceutical compounds that are synthesized for medical use by humans.
The Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology is dedicated to define disease processes, understanding both drug actions and adverse reactions, developing novel therapeutic strategies for intervention and optimizing the benefit–risk ratio of current and new drugs. We are based within the Institute of Translational Medicine, whose overall aim is to take basic scientific understanding and translate it into innovations for the benefit of patients, the public and health systems across the world.
Clinical pharmacy is the discipline of Pharmacy where pharmacists are meant to provide patient care which helps in optimizing the use of drugs and improves health, wellness, and prevents diseases. This session is dealt with topics like basic components of clinical pharmacy practice Prescribing drugs, Reviewing drug use, Administering drugs, Counselling, Documenting professional services, Consulting, Preventing Medication Errors etc.
Concept of Pharmacovigilance and its Significance enhances the impact of pharmacovigilance on patient welfare and public health and to know what is Pharmacovigilance. This track gives a brief discussion on Pharmacovigilance role in healthcare system. Pharmacovigilance legislation gives an outlook on the rules and laws to follow in Pharmacovigilance practice. The Role of Pharma industries in the improvement of pharmacovigilance system is very crucial to maintain the safety data, Detection and Evaluation of drug safety signals through manual and medical devices reporting. Pharmacovigilance scope also deals as Ecopharmacovigilance (EPV), pharmacoenvironmentology and pharmacovigilance in herbal medicine.
Paediatric clinical pharmacology is the scientific study of medicines in children and is a relatively new subspecialty in paediatrics in the UK. Training encompasses both the study of the effectiveness of drugs in children (clinical trials) and aspects of drug toxicity (pharmacovigilance).Paediatric clinical pharmacology is the scientific study of medicines in children and is a relatively new subspecialty in paediatrics in the UK. Training encompasses both the study of the effectiveness of drugs in children (clinical trials) and aspects of drug toxicity (pharmacovigilance).
Clinical pharmacology encompasses all aspects of the relationship between drugs and humans. It is the only medical specialty in the NHS focusing on the safe, effective and economic use of medicines. It is a diverse discipline that both sustains and advances best healthcare.
In a context of severe pharmaceutical pollution, “ecopharmacovigilance” (EPV) has been an area of novel interest. It aims to ensure that significant environmental issues associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment are identified in a timely way, and managed appropriately. EPV has become a research hotspot as a comprehensive and boundary science in Europe and North America, and regulatory requirements governing the comprehensive environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pharmaceuticals exist in these regions. Speedy Chinese pharmaceutical industry development and drug consumption, China should shoulder more international responsibility and contribute to the worldwide EPV. Compared to the west, EPV in China is in its infancy. We analysed the current state of EPV-related practice in China and found that many efforts have been made by the Chinese government and specialists to control the ever-worsening environmental pharmaceutical pollution problems, including consummating related policies and regulations, revealing the occurrence and behaviour of pharmaceutical residues in environment and developing new technologies to improve their removal performance.
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal that covers preclinical and clinical studies on the regulatory effects of various agents on immunocompetent cells, as well as the immunotoxicity exerted by xenobiotics and drugs. Hence, the journal encompasses a broad range of pathologies (e.g. acute and chronic infections, allergy, autoimmunity, cancer, degenerative disorders, inflammation, and primary and secondary immunodeficiency’s). It is published by Informer.
Cardiovascular Pharmacology deals with the study of the effects of drugs upon the heart or circulatory system. It mainly contributes to the safety profile of potential new drugs and provides pharmacological data that can be used for optimization of further compounds and the ultimate selection of compounds suitable for clinical development. The cardiac drugs affect the function of the heart in three main ways. They can affect the force of contraction of the heart muscle (inotropic effects), they can affect the frequency of the heart beat or heart rate (chronotropic effects) or they can affect the regularity of the heart beat (rhythmic effects). Drugs can also affect blood vessels by altering the state of compression of the smooth muscle in the vessel wall, altering its diameter and accordingly directing the volume of blood stream. Such medications are classified as vasoconstrictors or vasodilators depending on the smooth muscle lining contraction and relaxation respectively.
Biochemical pharmacology uses the methods of biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology, structural biology, cell biology, and cell physiology to define the mechanisms of drug action and how drugs influence the organism by studies on intact animals, organs, cells, subcellular compartments and individual protein molecules. The biochemical pharmacologist also uses drugs as probes to discover new information about biosynthetic and cell signalling pathways and their kinetics, and investigates how drugs can correct the biochemical abnormalities that are responsible for human illness, thus enabling the elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms that pave the way for further drug discovery.
An antibiotic is a type of antimicrobial substance active against bacteria. It is the most important type of antibacterial agent for fighting bacterial infections, and antibiotic medications are widely used in the treatment and prevention of such infections. They may either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. A limited number of antibiotics also possess antiprotozoal activity. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as the common cold drugs which inhibit viruses are termed antiviral drugs or antivirals rather than antibiotics.