Fundamental to the safety of many tissue-engineered medical products is how cells respond to a given polymer when it is implanted into the body. Assurance of cellular stability during the manufacturing, storage and shipment of such products is important to get optimal efficacy. It is therefore important to have cellular biomarkers which measure genetic damage that cells might undergo during tissue engineering.
Biochips refer to the complete fundamental functional unit which is capable of performing multi biochemical tasks simultaneously. On the other hand Tissue chips are similar miniaturized units which can replace a tissue or some part of it, enabling the organ to work normally. Both biochips & tissue chips are basic in tissue engineering technology. DNA microarray also called as biochip in simple terms having two dimensional grid systems where upon sensors or solid flat substrates are incorporated.
. Scaffold biomaterials act as templates for tissue regeneration, to monitor the growth of new tissue. These scaffolds are used to maintenance organs and organ systems that may have been damaged after injury or disease. Scaffolds are of excessive importance in clinical medicine. It is a forthcoming field, and typically related with conditions involving organ disease or failure. Hence it is used to reconstruct organs and coming back normal function.
Biomaterials are widely used for the healthcare applications from the ancient times. But progressive evolution has made them more versatile and has increased their utility. Biomaterials have revolutionized the areas like bioengineering and tissue engineering for the development of novel approach to combat life threatening diseases. Together with biomaterials, stem cell technology is also mostly used to improve the existing healthcare facilities. Visible progress was made in the area of biomaterials since 1940s and simultaneous development has been observed in therapeutic medical technologies and implant devices over the past 25 years.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is also known as additive manufacturing. It shows main inventions in many areas, like engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. 3D bioprinting is extensively applied in regenerative medicine to fulfill the need for tissues and organs appropriate for transplantation. Applications of this 3D-bioprinted tissue models is for research, drug discovery and toxicology. The capability to 3D print with adult stem cells displays the possible to effect regenerative medicine universally.
Tissue engineering represents one of the most exciting advances in regenerative medicine. Guide Tissue Regeneration (GTR) is defined as the procedures of attempting to regenerate lost periodontal structures through differential tissue responses. It lays emphasize on the development of both hard tissue as well as soft tissues of the periodontal supplement. With the help of GTR, 3-dimensional tissues that accurately integrate with a patient's body are been produced.
Biomedicine is the application of the principles of the natural sciences, specifically biology and physiology, to clinical medicine. It is mainly applies to biology and physiology. Biomedicine has been an active model and played an immensely important part in people’s understandings of health and illness. Usually biomedicine finds a problem in a patient and repairs the problem with the help of medical intervention. Objective of Medicine is to curing diseases rather than improving one's health.
Bone and cartilage both are the most important components in the skeleton system, providing the major structure of the body of vertebrates and conferring protection of soft tissues. Tissue engineering of musculoskeletal tissues, especially bone and cartilage, is a rapidly developing field. In bone, technology has centered on bone graft substitute materials and the development of biodegradable scaffolds. Currently tissue engineering strategies have included cell and gene therapy. The availability of growth factors and the expanding knowledge base concerning the genetics and regulation of bone formation have developed new materials for tissue-engineering applications. This information base also has benefited for cartilage tissue engineering.
The skin is the largest organ of the body and is act as a barrier to the environment and for thermal regulation and hydration retention. The top layer of the skin, the epidermis which comprised mainly of keratinocytes, provides the barrier against exogenous substances, chemicals, pathogens and prevents dehydration through the regulation of fluid loss. Another cell within the epidermis is melanocytes which give pigmentation and Langerhans’ cells which provide immune surveillance. Extreme loss of skin may occur due to injury and illness which result in ample physiological imbalance and may lead to major disability or even death. Tissue-engineered skin (TES) alternates signify a logical beneficial option for the treatment of severe and chronic skin injuries.
The most common reason of heart failure is acute or chronic damage to the heart. The human heart has very minute regenerative ability. After a cardiac incident, the loss of heart function cannot be naturally recovered, which harms the quality of life of patients. Currently high improvement seen in the engineering of 3-dimensional (3D) heart muscles. Progresses in human stem cell biology and technology, predict the cardiac tissue engineering methods widespread. Tissue engineering aims at providing living, force-producing heart muscle tissue which can be transplanted on injured or abnormal hearts and can repair normal function.
A bioartificial organ is an engineered device or tissue which is incorporated into human body to replace a natural organ .It combines biomaterials and biological cells for fully replacement of patient failure organs. Examples of bioartificial organ are bioartificial kidney devices, combining biomaterials and kidney epithelial cells for improved blood detoxification, bioartificial pancreas devices, combining encapsulation of pancreatic cells for treatment of diabetes, bioartificial lungs for studying lung regeneration.
The remarkable improvement in the field of stem cell research has set the foundation for cell based treatments of disease which cannot be cured by conventional medicines. The capability of self-renewal and segregate into other forms of cells signify stem cells as borderlines of regenerative medicine. The capability of differentiation of stem cells varies according to the source and according to those regenerative applications also varies. Progresses in gene editing and tissue engineering machinery have permitted the ex vivo remodeling of stem cells grown into 3D organoids and tissue structures for personalized uses.
Cancer stem cells are like all stem cells which are unspecialised that means they have no tissue-specific structures. They can divide and renovate themselves for long periods and they are capable of give rise to specialised cells. They can therefore summarize tumour heterogeneity as they can be found in tumours. Research so far has proposed they also have multi drug and radiotherapy resistance. Hence there may be more similarities between cancer stem cells and normal stem cells, further research in needed to identify and characterise these cells.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the noncoding small RNAs which negatively regulate the expression of downstream target mRNAs. These are considered as unique class of molecular targets and therapeutics that may play a vital role in tissue engineering. MiRNAs also act as principal controllers of normal and pathological tissue development. MicroRNAs influence in numerous processes such as damage, repair, and regeneration of tissues. Because of all this reason they are studied as targets and tools for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Patients who are suffering from disease and injured organs may be treated with transplanted organs. However the severe scarcity of donor organs may create disturbance in organ transplantation. Scientists in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering apply the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering so as to construct biological substitutes that will restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. Therapeutic cloning, offers a limitless source of cells for tissue engineering applications. The stem cell field is also advancing rapidly, creating new options for therapy. The aim of this conference is to explore recent advances that have occurred in regenerative medicine and describes applications of these new technologies.
Regenerative medicine deals with the technique of replacing, engineering human cells, tissues or organs to reestablish its regular function. It brings together experts in biology, chemistry, computer science, engineering, genetics, medicine, robotics, and other fields to solving the most challenging medical problems. It aims to reestablish both structure and function of damaged tissues as well as organs. It is also repair the organs which become permanently damaged. This method aims to invent techniques to cure earlier untreatable injuries and diseases.