The interdisciplinary field which consist life science, bio-engineering materials going to change the ways we improve the health and personal satisfaction for many individuals worldwide by keeping up, re-establishing or improving organ and organ work. Moreover tissue engineering is the improvement of manufactured tissue and organ frameworks. Built tissue is framed by the utilization of a platform that as a rule has human cells embedded preceding the implantation of the framework in the patient.
Medical materials interact therapeutically in the body which have bioactive structures that encourage repair, provide tailored mechanical support, regeneration and releasing drugs at a controlled rate. These materials must not contain any toxicity or cytotoxicity for The construction of artificial tissue need material outside of the body using several types of skin cells, ice templated scaffolds, biodegradable and bioactive polymers, ceramics and composites
The era of medicines and molecular therapies has arrived. Initial approvals show the present and future wherein we will be able to treat and cure disease with molecular technologies (Gene and Cell Therapy). We can now look back at Carl Sagan’s “pale blue dot” that gene therapy once was and look forward to the expanding possibilities ahead. To accomplish these goals, we need to improve a cohesiveness in subspecialties of the field (DNA, or RNA viruses, CAR-T cells etc.) including the methods used for determining attributes, such as active principle, dose, strength, purity, toxicity, shedding, bio distribution, environmental risk, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, both in human and animal studies.
The emerging new possibilities bring together to make a novel approaches such as data and informatics, genome sequencing and wearable technology these interconnections between innovations that makes it possible to move in world of truly personalised care. At the heart of regenerative medicine is research using stem cells, cells that can regenerate almost indefinitely some, known as pluripotent stem cells can develop into any of the cell types in the body. This extraordinary flexibility means they have the potential to treat many different diseases and conditions that currently have no cure, like type 1 diabetes, blindness, Parkinson’s disease, heart disease and arthritis.
Scaffold biomaterials act as templates for tissue regeneration, to monitor the growth of new tissue. These scaffolds are used to maintenance organs and organ systems that may have been damaged after injury or disease. Scaffolds are of excessive importance in clinical medicine. It is a forthcoming field, and typically related with conditions involving organ disease or failure. Hence it is used to reconstruct organs and coming back normal function.
Biomaterials are widely used for the healthcare applications from the ancient times. But progressive evolution has made them more versatile and has increased their utility. Biomaterials have revolutionized the areas like bioengineering and tissue engineering for the development of novel approach to combat life threatening diseases. Together with biomaterials, stem cell technology is also mostly used to improve the existing healthcare facilities.
Cell Signaling is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions. The ability of cells to perceive and correctly respond to their microenvironment is the basis of development, tissue repair, and immunity, as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Errors in signaling interactions and cellular information processing are responsible for diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, and diabetes. By understanding cell signaling diseases may be treated more effectively and, theoretically, artificial tissues may be created.
Medicine based on the application of the principles of the natural sciences and especially biology and biochemistry and the medical drugs produced using biotechnology process. Including proteins (antibodies), nucleic acids (DNA, RNA or antisense oligonucleotides) used for therapeutic or in vivo diagnostic purposes, and are produced by means other than direct extraction from a native (non-engineered) biological source.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is also known as additive manufacturing. It shows main inventions in many areas, like engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. 3d-bioprinting is extensively applied in regenerative medicine to fulfill the need for tissues and organs appropriate for transplantation. Applications of this 3D-bioprinted tissue models is for research, drug discovery and toxicology. The capability to 3D print with adult stem cell displays the possible to effect regenerative medicine universally.
Biobanking is the process by which samples of bodily fluid or tissue are collected for research use to improve our understanding of health and disease. Other information, such as height, weight and questions about things that may have a bearing on health (e.g. family history and lifestyle) may also be recorded at the same time, to provide the context for the samples. Often the samples are kept indefinitely or for several years, depending on the study, so that long term future research can be carried out.
Tissue engineering represents one of the most exciting advances in regenerative medicine. Guide Tissue Regeneration is defined as the procedures of attempting to regenerate lost periodontal structures through differential tissue responses. It lays emphasize on the development of both hard tissue as well as soft tissues of the periodontal supplement. With the help of GTR, 3-dimensional tissues that accurately integrate with a patient's body are been produced.
Biomedicine is the application of the principles of the natural sciences, specifically biology and physiology, to clinical medicine. It is mainly applies to biology and physiology. Biomedicine has been an active model and played an immensely important part in people’s understandings of health and illness. Usually biomedicine finds a problem in a patient and repairs the problem with the help of medical intervention. Objective of Medicine is to curing diseases rather than improving one's health.
Bone and cartilage both are the most important components in the skeleton system, providing the major structure of the body of vertebrates and conferring protection of soft tissues. Tissue engineering of musculoskeletal tissues, especially bone and cartilage, is a rapidly developing field. In bone, technology has centered on bone graft substitute materials and the development of biodegradable scaffolds. Currently tissue engineering strategies have included cell and gene therapy. The availability of growth factors and the expanding knowledge base concerning the genetics and regulation of bone formation have developed new materials for tissue-engineering applications.
The skin is the largest organ of the body and is act as a barrier to the environment and for thermal regulation and hydration retention. The top layer of the skin, the epidermis which comprised mainly of keratinocytes, provides the barrier against exogenous substances, chemicals, pathogens and prevents dehydration through the regulation of fluid loss. Another cell within the epidermis is melanocytes which give pigmentation and Langerhans’ cells which provide immune surveillance. Extreme loss of skin may occur due to injury and illness which result in ample physiological imbalance and may lead to major disability or even death. Tissue-engineered skin (TES) alternates signify a logical beneficial option for the treatment of severe and chronic skin injuries.
Tissue or Engineered device which is incorporated into human body to replace a natural organ. It combines biomaterials and biological cells for fully replacement of patient failure organs. Bioartificial organ are bioartificial kidney devices, combining biomaterials and kidney epithelial cells for improved blood detoxification, bioartificial pancreas devices, combining encapsulation of pancreatic cells for treatment of diabetes, bioartificial lungs for studying lung regeneration.
The remarkable improvement in the field of stem cell research has set the foundation for cell based treatments of disease which cannot be cured by conventional medicines. The capability of self-renewal and segregate into other forms of cells signify stem cells as borderlines of regenerative medicine. The capability of differentiation of stem cells varies according to the source and according to those regenerative applications also varies. Progresses in gene editing and tissue engineering machinery have permitted the ex vivo remodeling of stem cells grown into 3D organoids and tissue structures for personalized uses.
Cancer stem cells are like all stem cells which are unspecialised that means they have no tissue-specific structures. They can divide and renovate themselves for long periods and they are capable of give rise to specialised cells. They can therefore summarize tumour heterogeneity as they can be found in tumours. Research so far has proposed they also have multi drug and radiotherapy resistance. Hence there may be more similarities between cancer stem cells and normal stem cells, further research in needed to identify and characterise these cells.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the noncoding small RNAs which negatively regulate the expression of downstream target mRNAs. These are considered as unique class of molecular targets and therapeutics that may play a vital role in tissue engineering. MiRNAs also act as principal controllers of normal and pathological tissue development. MicroRNAs influence in numerous processes such as damage, repair, and regeneration of tissues. Because of all this reason they are studied as targets and tools for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Patients who are suffering from disease and injured organs may be treated with transplanted organs. However the severe scarcity of donor organs may create disturbance in organ transplantation. Scientists in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering apply the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering so as to construct biological substitutes that will restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. Therapeutic cloning, offers a limitless source of cells for tissue engineering applications. The stem cell field is also advancing rapidly, creating new options for therapy. The aim of this conference is to explore recent advances that have occurred in regenerative medicine and describes applications of these new technologies.