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Animal and veterinary sciences help explore the habits and care of wild and domesticated animals, covering all aspects of the world's fauna, from wildlife conservation to zoology to nutrition for pets and farm animals. Veterinary research works on prevention, control, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of animals and on the basic biology, welfare, and care of animals. It surpasses species boundaries and comprises the study of spontaneously occurring and experimentally induced models of both human and animal disease and research at human-animal interfaces, such as food safety, wildlife and ecosystem health, zoonotic diseases, and public policy.

 

Being one of the largest and most influential industries, with millions of farms and billions of animals worldwide, the livestock industry, has its ultimate goal to manage production for optimal yields in order to ensure economic viability and to supply sufficient volumes to feed large populations. Livestock nutrition is an important aspect of a livestock operation. The health of groups of animals directly correlates with the operational stability and overall profitability of a farming operation. Livestock nutrition is primarily concerned with six different food groups, all of which serve a specific purpose in maintaining livestock health, weight, and product viability and include Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, Water, Vitamins and Minerals.

 

 

It is worth wondering that how animals compete with other individuals to maintain themselves for a period of time that would be sufficient to enable them to produce tissue that would be central to the maintenance of their species. It is animal genetics that impart advance breeding technology and testing services such as genetic trait tests, DNA typing and genetic disease tests to help maintain and improve a particular species. It not only studies heredity and variation chiefly in farm animals but also in domestic and wild animals. It works on the following:-

 

Poultry Farming is the process of raising domesticated birds such as chickens etc. for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. Farmers raise more than 50 billion chickens annually as a source of food, both for their meat and for their eggs. Poultry has been classified as agriculture now and is treated as priority sector of lending from financing institutions. World poultry production has reached almost 123 million tons in 2018 and thus, provides a broad scope of economic development.

 

Any unique or wild-looking pet is considered an exotic pet. Exotic species may include alien species which are unique to the locals and are also called as zoological companion animals. Exotic avains provide evidence about the human induced environmental changes. Global spatial and temporal variation in the drivers of alien introduction and species richness remain poorly understood and is a major area of research for the scientists. Alien species have been responsible for numerous global and local extinctions and are eroding the uniqueness of many natural environments.

 

 

Camels have been first trained by local individuals over 5,000 years prior, these solid creatures have proven imperative to the survival of people in these regions as they are not only employed for transporting the two individuals and merchandise, but also provide a decent wellspring of drain, meat and fleece. Equine Sciences mainly deals with horses and includes core agribusiness activities related to the use, possession or ownership of horses, as well as leisure activities and related economic activity that provides associated goods and services. It also includes equine nutrition, equipment, publications, veterinary care, education, In the U.S. about 6 per cent of veterinarians specialize in horse care. Veterinary meeting welcomes dynamics in camel and equine sciences.

 

It is a branch of biotechnology which uses molecular biology techniques to genetically engineer or to modify the genome of animals in order to improve their suitability for pharmaceutical, agricultural or industrial applications. It is used to produce genetically modified animals that synthesize therapeutic proteins, have improved growth rates or are resistant to diseases. This field provides new tools for improving human health, animal health and welfare and helps in increasing livestock productivity. Biotechnology also helps in improving an animal’s impact on the environment and also enhances ability to detect, treat and prevent diseases.

 

The field which deals with the diagnosis of diseases through the examination of animal tissue and body fluids. Anatomical pathology deals with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross examination, microscopic, and molecular examination of organs, tissues, and whole bodies (necropsy). While, clinical pathology is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids such as blood, urine or cavitary effusions, or tissue aspirates. Veterinary pathologists play an important role in the animal diseases diagnosis which in turn is helpful in avoiding the serious diseases which pass on to the humans through animals.

 

 

Veterinary Surgery is performed by procedures that fall into three broad categories: orthopaedics (bones, joints, muscles), soft tissue surgery (skin, body cavities, cardiovascular system, GI/urogenital/respiratory tracts), and neurosurgery. Most general practice veterinarians perform routine surgery while, some also perform additional procedures .The goal of veterinary surgery is quite different in pets and in farm animals which may be benefit  the patient or economic benefit in the latter case. Veterinary Surgery forms an important part of the Veterinary practice and provides a great area of research and application.

 

Respect for animal welfare is usually based on the belief that nonhuman animals are sentient and that consideration should be given to their well-being or suffering, especially when they are under the care of humans. These concerns can include how animals are slaughtered for food, how they are used in scientific research, how they are kept (as pets, in zoos, farms, circuses, etc.), and how human activities affect the welfare and survival of wild species is the well-being of nonhuman animals. The standards of animal welfare vary noticeably between different contexts. Animal welfare science seeks to answer questions raised by the keeping and use of animals, such as whether hens are frustrated when confined in cages, whether the psychological well-being of animals in laboratories can be maintained, and whether zoo animals are stressed by the transport required for international conservation.

 

Vaccination has been an effective way to reduce disease burden in pets and farm animals, and is a crucial tool in maintaining animal health and welfare. Vaccines play an important role in preventative health and disease control programmes in animals. Innovative research along with the development of licensed, safe, effective and quality vaccines helps pets and farm animals get benefitted from vital medicines that prevent or alleviate clinical signs of disease. Healthy animals are also the keystone of healthy food and so vaccination can help safeguard our food produced from animals. The animal medicine sector provides farmers with the range of vaccines that can help protect animals from the fatal diseases.

 

It is the broadly considered concept which refers to everything animals do, including movement and other activities and underlying mental processes. Initially, animals were observed for practical reasons because early human survival was dependent on knowledge of animal behaviour. Intimate knowledge of an animal’s habits are required, whether it is hunting wild animals, keeping domesticated animals, or escaping an attacking predator. Information about animal behaviour is of considerable importance in terms of preventing diseases, avoiding road accidents due to some animals. In addition, investigations of the foraging of insectpollinators, such as honeybees, have led to impressive increase in agricultural crop yields throughout the world.

 

Veterinary Dentistry applies to dental care in animals. It is the art and science of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of conditions, diseases, and disorders of the oral cavity, the maxillo-facial region, and its associated structures in animals. Veterinary dentists offer services in the all the fields of Oral Health Care for animals. Veterinary Dentists treat conditions such as jaw fractures, malocclusions, oral cancer, periodontal disease, and stomatitis and other conditions unique to veterinary medicine. It is a progressive field and provides opportunities to the scientists to work on the dentistry related research on the animals which can be useful to humans too.

 

Dairy farming is a field of agriculture for long-term production of milk, which is further processed for production and eventual sale of dairy products. Commercial dairy farms are typically one-species enterprises, usually consisting of high producing dairy cows. Other species used in commercial dairy farming include goats, sheep, and camels. In some countries like Italy, donkey dairies are also growing and being popularized to produce an alternative milk source for human infants. Dairy farming is one of the main veterinarian research focuses as it includes devising new technologies for the increased production of milk, better breeding opportunities, maintenance of the wild breeds etc.