The experience of women health is differed from those of men due to their biological and behavioral conditions. The unique health related issues include pregnancy, menopause and conditions of the female organs. Women in various countries have narrowed the gender gap in life expectancy and now live longer than men, in many areas of health they experience earlier and more severe disease with poorer outcomes. Women remain an important social determinant of health, since women's health is influenced not just by their biology but also by conditions such as poverty, employment, and family responsibilities.
Around the world nearly 80 percent of breast cancer cases are discovered when the woman feels a lump, the earliest breast cancers are detected by a mammogram and lump found in lymph nodes located in the armpit can also indicate breast cancer. Some are the risk factors for breast cancer are being female and older age, other potential risk factors include genetics, lack of childbearing or lack of breastfeeding, higher levels of certain hormones, certain dietary patterns, and obesity. Recent studies have indicated that exposure to light pollution is a risk factor for the development of breast cancer.
Ovarian cancer forms in or on an ovary, it results in abnormal cells that could invade or spread to other parts of the body. Risk of developing ovarian cancer is less for women who have fewer menstrual cycles, no menstrual cycles, breast feeding, take oral contraceptives, have multiple pregnancies, and have a pregnancy at an early age.
Heart diseases are the leading cause of death globally, this is true in all around the world. They resulted 32 percent in 2015, up from 25 percent in 1990. Certain deaths at a given age from CVD are more common and have been increasing in much of the developing world, while rates have declined in most of the developed world since the 1970s. Some risk factors for heart diseases are age, gender, tobacco use, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, obesity, genetic predisposition and family history of cardiovascular disease, raised blood pressure (hypertension), raised blood sugar, raised blood cholesterol, psychosocial factors, poverty, and air pollution.
In 2016, complications of pregnancy resulted in 218,000 deaths, down from 377,000 deaths in 1990. The Common causes include maternal bleeding, complications of abortion, high blood pressure of pregnancy, maternal sepsis, and obstructed labor. Around the world 40% of pregnancies are unplanned and half of unplanned pregnancies are aborted. Every year complications from pregnancy and childbirth result in about 500,000 maternal deaths, 7 million women have serious long-term problems, and 50 million women have health negative outcomes following delivery, most of these occur in the developing countries.
Preventive health care with the goal of providing regular checkups that allow doctors to treat and prevent potential health problems throughout the course of the pregnancy while promoting healthy lifestyles that benefit both mother and child. Some ways to change health systems to help women access prenatal care such as new health policies, educating health workers and health service reorganization. Communities and associations intervention to help people to change their behavior can also play a part, Example of these interventions are: media campaigns reaching many people, enabling communities to take control of their own health, informative education communication interventions or financial incentives.
Gynecology and Obstetrics is the medical specialty that deals with obstetrics and gynecology. The training programs for both aspects are usually combined, preparing the practicing obstetrician-gynecologist to be adept at the care of female reproductive organs health and at the management of pregnancy. Although some physicians go on to develop subspecialty interests in one field or the other.
It is a type of mood disorder that can affect a woman health during pregnancy and after the birth of child. It includes prenatal depression, the baby blues, postpartum depression and postpartum psychosis. Between 15 and 20 percent of all women experience some form of pregnancy related depression or anxiety. Prenatal depression affects between 10 and 20 percent of women. Symptoms of prenatal depression include: Crying, Sleep problems (not due to frequent urination), Fatigue, Appetite disturbance, Loss of enjoyment of activities, Anxiety, Poor fetal attachment.
Pregnancy may induce maternal physiological changes that affect gastrointestinal function and drug absorption rates. Primary changes may influence the pulmonary absorption of inhaled drugs, as the glomerular filtration rate usually increases during pregnancy, renal drug elimination is generally enhanced, whereas hepatic drug metabolism may increase, decrease or remain unchanged. A mean increase of 8 L in total body water alters drug distribution and results in decreased peak serum concentrations of many drugs.
Medical profession that concerns with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period, besides sexual and reproductive health of women throughout their lives. Globally, midwifery is a medical profession special for its independent and direct specialized, a professional in midwifery is known as a midwife.
Midwifery pediatric is the medical care of newborns and children up to adolescence. The role of midwives is to administer directly procedures and medicines to children according to prescribed nursing care plans. Pediatric nurse assess the patient by observing vital signs and developing communication skills with children and family members and with medical teams, being a support to children and their families is one component of direct nursing care.
Midwifery nursing is the care of women across their lifespan including pregnancy, the postpartum period, well woman care and birth control. Certified nurse midwives are recognized by the International Confederation of Midwives as a type of midwives in the United States. High risk pregnancies can receive the benefits of nurse midwifery care from a CNM in collaboration with a physician, CNMs may work closely or in collaboration with an obstetrician & gynecologist.
Midwifery nursing is a health professional that specialized in pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum, women's sexual and reproductive health, and newborn care. Nursing practice also educated and trained to recognize the variations of normal progress of labor and understand how to deal with deviations from normal. Midwifery nursing may involve in high risk situations such as breech births, twin births and births where the baby is in a posterior position, using non-invasive techniques.
This is a health condition of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period, it shows the health care dimensions of family planning, preconception, prenatal, and postnatal care in order to ensure a positive and fulfilling experience in most cases and reduces mortality in other cases. Globally, there has been a decline in mortality rates much more has to be done, high rates of mortality still exist particularly in developing communities with over 85 percent living in Africa and Southern Asia.
A midwife service in breast feeding is exceptionally more important, breast feeding is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast. Physicians suggested that breastfeeding begin within the first hour of a baby's life and continue as often and as much as the baby wants. In first few weeks of life babies may nurse roughly every two to three hours, the duration of a feeding is usually ten to fifteen minutes on each breast and older children feed less often. Breastfeeding has a number of benefits to both mother and baby.
It concerns with the specialty of obstetrics and gynecology that trains the students in reproductive medicine as well as the issue of infertility. Reproductive specialists mainly focus on the treatment of infertility, reproductive endocrinologists are trained to evaluate and treat hormonal dysfunctions in females and males outside infertility. It has special training in obstetrics and gynecology before they undergo subspecialty training in REI.
It is a condition of hazard associated with some chemical substances that will interfere in some way with normal reproduction such substances are called reproductive toxic. This shows some adverse reactions on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females. Reproductive toxicity usual to take a practical definition including several different effects which are unrelated to each other except in their outcome of lowered effective fertility. The Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) separates reproductive toxicity from germ cell mutagenicity and carcinogenicity even though both these hazards may also affect fertility.
Ethical legal and social issues are formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century. Issues commonly associated with notions of women's rights include, though are not limited to, the right to bodily integrity and autonomy, to be free from sexual violence, to vote, hold public office, enter into legal contracts, have equal rights in family law, to work, fair wages or equal pay, to have reproductive rights, to own property and education.
About 90 percent of pregnant women take prescription or non-prescription drugs at some time during their pregnancy. Generally medicines should not be used during pregnancy because many of them are harmful to the fetus. Improper drug dispensing is one of the steps for rational drug use, so it is necessary that drug dispensers should have relevant and updated knowledge and skills regarding drug use in pregnancy. The knowledge of drug dispensers and pregnant women regarding drug use in pregnancy, focusing on commonly used drugs that are teratogen or cause unwanted effects to the fetus and babies.
It is a branch of pediatrics that concerns of the medical care of newborns, especially the unhealthy or premature infants. Neonatal care usually practiced in neonatal intensive care units, the principal patients of neonatologists are newborn infants who are ill or require special medical care due to, congenital malformations, sepsis, pulmonary hypoplasia or birth asphyxia, prematurity, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation.
In maternal care midwives are an integral component of the health care delivery system, they play a vital role in improving maternal and neonatal health. Globally, midwife is the first point of contact for most of the women during pregnancy and also the first one to lay a hand on a child as soon as it is delivered.
These are used for many purposes, they can be added to the diet to boost overall health and energy, to provide immune system support and reduce the risks of illness and age related conditions, to improve performance in athletic and mental activities, and to support the healing process during illness and disease. However, most of these products are treated as food and not regulated as drugs.
It concerns meeting with a health care professionals like midwife or physicians by a woman before attempting to become pregnant. Generally it includes a preconception risk assessment for any potential complications of pregnancy as well as modifications of risk factors, such as counseling on smoking cessation, alcohol reduction, and medications that may compromise fetal development increasing folic acid intake to reduce the risk of neural tube defects.