Nephrology is a branch of medical science that deals with function and diseases of the kidneys and it focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases. The kidneys are paired retroperitoneal organs that lie at the level of the T12 to L3 vertebral bodies. The kidney has a fibrous capsule, which is surrounded by pararenal fat. The kidney itself can be divided into renal parenchyma, consisting of renal cortex and medulla, and the renal sinus containing renal pelvis, calyces, renal vessels, nerves, lymphatics and perirenal fat. The renal parenchyma has two layers: cortex and medulla. The renal cortex lies peripherally under the capsule while the renal medulla consists of 10-14 renal pyramids, which are separated from each other by an extension of renal cortex called renal columns. The kidneys serve important functions, including filtration and excretion of metabolic waste products (urea and ammonium); regulation of necessary electrolytes, fluid, and acid-base balance; and stimulation of red blood cell production. They also serve to regulate blood pressure via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, controlling reabsorption of water and maintaining intravascular volume.
Human beings have two kidneys and are composed of nephrons, which filter the blood. Most of the diseases related to kidney affects these nephrons, thus hampering their function, and can cause various problems. Kidney diseases may occur due to various problems including diabetes, high blood pressure.
Renal nutrition is concerned with the special nutritional needs of kidney patients. Renal nutrition is concerned with ensuring that kidney patients eat the right foods to make dialysis efficient and improve health. Dialysis clinics have dieticians on staff that who help patients plan meals. Standard guidelines are: eating more high protein foods, and less high salt, high potassium, and high phosphorus foods. Patients are also advised on safe fluid intake levels.
Pediatric nephrologists are those who diagnose, treat, and manage the specific disorders that affect the kidney and urinary tract (kidney failure, high blood pressure, inherited kidney diseases, urinary tract infections, kidney stones, and abnormalities in the urine such as blood and protein) in childhood glomerulonephritis.
Our kidneys help builds up the right balance of salts and minerals in our blood. They additionally filter through toxins and produce important hormones. Nephrons are the key working segments of the kidney. Kidney infections are caused by harm to nephrons, which can be sudden and short lived (acute kidney Disease), or Slow and dynamic (Chronic kidney disease). Researchers are examining how stem cells may help kidneys to repair harmed nephrons and re-establish kidney function. Scientists are contemplating how the kidney can recover itself and what sorts of kidney cells are associated with this procedure. It is yet not clear which sort of cells is engaged with kidney recovery.
Heart failure, affects the kidney through the backward and the forward failure effects. Systemic Venous congestion. This results in an increase in the capillary pressure, transudation into interstitial spaces with decrease in effective circulating volume. This will be aggravated by the presence of forward failure and decrease in perfusion of the vital organs including the kidney. The result is oliguria; and in severe cases it may lead to prerenal failure. Increase in right atrial pressure and systemic congestion will increase secretion of ANP.
Hemodialysis is the treatment for kidney failure diseases. It uses a machine to filter the blood outside our body. It is the process of purification of the blood of a person whose kidneys does not function properly. It can also be a choice for renal replacement therapy for specific patients who require dialysis very acutely.
Kidney transplantation is typically classified as deceased-donor or living-donor transplantation depending on the source of the donor organ. Living-donor renal transplants are further characterized as genetically related (living-related) or non-related (living-unrelated) transplants, depending on whether a biological relationship exists between the donor and recipient.
Session 9: End Stage Renal diseases & Chronic Kidney Diseases
End-stage renal disease also termed as chronic kidney diseases (CKD) comprise conditions that damage kidneys and impair their ability to keep you hygienic by abnormal function. On condition kidney disease gets worse; wastes can accumulate to high levels in your blood and make you feel ill. One may develop issues like anaemia, high blood pressure, weak bones, nerve damage and poor nutritional health. Also, kidney disease elevates your risk of having coronary disease and heart problems. These problems may occur slowly for a long period of time. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the two main causes of chronic kidney disease.