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The term cardiovascular disease is often replaceable with the expression "cardiovascular disease." Cardiovascular disease generally refers to conditions that include constricted or blocked veins that can prompt a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or heart stroke. Other heart conditions, for example, those that influence your heart's muscle, valves or rhythm, are considered forms of heart disease.

Heart failure, sometimes known as congestive heart failure, occurs when your heart muscle doesn't pump blood. Certain conditions, for example, narrowed arteries in your heart (coronary artery disease or high blood pressure, gradually leave your heart too delicate or stiff to fill and pump efficiently  . There are two main types of heart failure: heart failure due to left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure with normal ejection fraction. Common causes of heart failure include coronary artery disease including a previous myocardial infarction (heart attack), high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, vascular heart disease, excess alcohol use, infection, and cardiomyopathy of an unknown cause.


An advanced nurse practitioner practises autonomously within his/her expanded scope of clinical practice. The advanced nurse practitioner demonstrates highly developed assessment, diagnostic, analytical and clinical judgement skills and the components of this level of practice. This framework provides the foundation on which all future advanced practice roles are to be developed and existing roles are to be reviewed and subsequently managed. The framework is aimed at employers, service leads, education providers and senior or advanced practitioners themselves. Cardiac surgery essentials for critical care nursing is the newest resource available to nurses who care for cardiac surgery patients. The goal of the cardiology conference was organized to make it useful to all nurses from novices to experts and to make the content specific to the cardiac surgery population rather than including all cardiothoracic procedures.


This aims to empower medical graduates who are already working or planning to work in cardiology units of hospitals with deeper understanding of cardiology topics and also general practitioners who wish to improve their knowledge and skills in managing patients with cardiovascular conditions. The field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology


Nuclear cardiology studies use non-invasive techniques to assess myocardial blood flow, evaluate the pumping function of the heart as well as predict the size and location of a heart attack. Among the techniques of nuclear cardiology, myocardial perfusion imaging (nuclear stress tests) for the detection and management of coronary artery disease, viability studies to assess for the extent of myocardial infarction, radionuclide cineangiograms (RNCA/MUGA studies) to evaluate heart function are widely used.


Cardiologists estimate patients for potential risk of developing heart conditions if patients take certain types of cancer drugs or other radiation treatment to the chest conditions. Cardiologists also help oncologists in patients during treatment by closely watching the heart conditions and recognizing heart trouble early in treatment.


Cardiovascular pharmacology deals with the drugs used for the treatment of cardiac, circulatory and vascular system. There are many types of cardiovascular drugs on the market that include cardiac glycosides, anticoagulants, antiarrhythmic agents, anti anginal agents and antihypertensive agents.
Bevyxxa (betrixaban): Approved June 2017
Byvalson (nebivolol and valsartan): Approved June 2016
Yosprala (aspirin and omeprazole): Approved September 2016


The improvement of heart surgery and cardiopulmonary sidestep procedures has lessened the death rates of these surgeries to generally low positions. Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery, is surgery performed on the heart or blood vessels by cardiac surgeons. For example, repairs of inborn heart deformities are at present assessed to have 4–6% death rates. It is often used to treat complications of ischemic heart diseases like coronary artery bypass grafting, to correct congenital heart disease; or to treat valvular heart disease from various causes, including endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and atherosclerosis. There will be expanded discussions regarding the new advanced technologies in cardiac transplantation and surgery processes.


 Diabetes mellitus (DM), is commonly a group of metabolic disorders where the glucose level rises for prolonged period of time. The indications of high glucose incorporate frequent urination, increased thirst and weight gain. Whenever left untreated, diabetes can cause serious issues. Diabetes has also been correlated with obesity, creating a new term among healthcare professionals called “diabesity.”  Cardio metabolic complications can cause numerous illnesses where a wide range of various variables including lifestyles, diets, living environments, & related genetic factors. Genetic factors may include hypertension, Diabetics etc. Cardio metabolic complications if unrecognized leads to cardio metabolic risk where you are prone to have diabetes, heart diseases and stroke.


Veterinary Cardiology generally deals with the study and treatment of disease condition of cardiovascular system in cats and dogs (pet's heart and blood vessels). The heart problems may include canine and feline congestive heart failure, hypertension, dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and valvular disorders. Due to the interrelation in the function of pet's heart and lungs, veterinary cardiologists are also knowledgeable about lung diseases as well as diseases of the chest cavity. Many pets with heart disease are asymptomatic. A veterinary cardiology specialist will perform a complete and thorough physical examination on animal and further animal’s past history and current medications are reviewed and based on these findings, additional tests will be performed.


Personalized Medicine helps these gatherings to shape the future of medicine by providing a platform for expert commentary and analysis. Personalized medicine is a novel therapeutic model with all decisions and practices being custom-made to individual patients in the ways imaginable. Also, when utilized in patient treatment, personalized medicine is regularly utilized in hazard counteractive action (54 percent), genetic testing (53 percent) and lifestyle change (50 percent). Therefore personalized treatment can be adjusted to reduce the cost of medication. Personalized medicine is probably going to change the essence of cardiovascular treatment in the near future.


Sports and Exercise Cardiology is concerned about the cardiovascular consideration of athletes and exercising individuals of all ages, advancing the knowledge through advance education, clinical expertise and research. Sports medication, otherwise called as sport and exercise medicine (SEM) is a part of drug that deals with physical fitness and the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise.

Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is the major reason of death in exercising young athletes, and is most common set of issues as structural heart disorders or electrical circuitry issues which are not commonly found during routine physical examinations.  The vast majority of the conditions that reason sudden cardiovascular passing in youthful competitors are assessed by an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG), a non-intrusive test which ascertains the electrical movement of the heart. The principle point of the Sports Cardiology Centre is to work with any athlete forth the spectrum - proficient athletes, recreational exercisers, to end of the week warriors to enable them to achieve these objectives.

Interventional cardiology is a part of cardiology that deals with the catheter based treatment of structural heart diseases. Interventional cardiology is a non-surgical option which utilizes a catheter – a small, flexible tube – to repair damaged or weakened vessels, narrowed arteries, or other affected parts of the heart structure. An expansive number of methodologies can be performed on the heart by catheterization. The principle favourable circumstances of utilizing the interventional cardiology or radiology approach are the avoidance of the scars and pain, and long post-agent recovery. Moreover, interventional cardiology system of essential angioplasty is presently the highest quality level of consideration for an acute myocardial infarction. 


Branch of medicine concerning childhood heart problems is known as paediatric cardiology. Proper nursing and care for such children is essential in addition to the treatments. They work closely with a wide range of specialists as part of a multidisciplinary team to assess and treat patients. 

The emerging field of geriatric cardiology reflects a shift in clinical practice as the typical cardiovascular (CV) patient is now much older than in the past with distinctive goals and complexities related to age. Cardiac disorders are main reason of morbidity and mortality in elders. Proper nursing and care is essential.


Few tissues like skin and large organs such as liver regrow quite readily, whereas others have little or no capacity of regeneration. However in the present research, it suggests that particularly in the Lungs and heart, there is hope for a variety of organs and tissues will eventually develop and the capacity to regenerate

The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw. Often it occurs in the centre or left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes. Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, a cold sweat, or feeling tired. An MI may cause heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, cardiogenic shock, or cardiac arrest.


Cardiovascular diagnostic tests are the strategies and techniques of detecting heart conditions related with healthy and pathologic heart functions. Specialist will analyse coronary heart disease (CHD) in view of patient's medical and family ancestries, risk factors, a physical test and the outcomes from tests and strategies. No single test can analyse CHD. The patient may need to experience at least one test. Regular indicative tests incorporate Angiogram, Blood tests, Blood pressure monitoring, Chest X-ray, Echocardiogram, MRI and ECG, Electrophysiology studies, Stress test or Tilt test. New tests are constantly being developed to further the understanding of disease, injury and congenital (present at birth) or acquired abnormalities of the heart.