Dementia is now the leading cause of death that has caused more deaths than heart disease. It is a group of symptoms that leads to brain function decline and memory impairment.
It can be grouped based on the part of brain being affected. A dementia results in a change from a person's usual mental functioning and a greater decline than one would expect due to aging. Alzheimer's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are two forms of cortical dementia. Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and HIV are two forms subcortical dementia.
- Track 1-1: Vascular Dementia
- Track 1-2: Digital Dementia
- Track 1-3: Frontotemporal dementia
- Track 1-4: TBI, Stroke & Dementia
- Track 1-5: Childhood Trauma and Dementia
- Track 1-6: Other disorders linked to Dementia
Caring of person with dementia is a difficult task both for families and caregivers. Individual with dementia have progressive brain disorder and memory loss, which makes them difficult to do daily activities. They need support and care.
Most persons with dementia die of acute illness and many are hospitalised at the end of life. In the acute hospital setting, limitation of care orders (LCOs) such as Do Not Attempt CPR and Physician Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment (POLST), appear to be underused in patients with dementia. These patients receive the same aggressive life-prolonging therapies as any other patient, despite drastically higher mortality.
Caring for people with dementia is a vital and rewarding service. Caring with dignity and respect allows the affected person to retain as much of who they were as possible and removing much of the fear for both the individual and their family. The right care can limit the negative impact of the unpredictability of dementia. Several associations are there which are often helpful in completing these tasks.
- Track 2-1: Dementia Nursing
- Track 2-2: Psychiatric / Mental status Evaluation
- Track 2-3: Dementia Care and Consulting
- Track 2-4: Society & Culture
Alzheimer's is a chronic neurodegenerative disease. It is the most common form of dementia and accounts for 60 to 80% of dementia cases. It causes problems with memory, thinking and behaviour. Symptoms usually develop slowly and get worse over time, gradually become severe enough to interfere with day to day work. People with Alzheimer's live an average life of eight years after the symptoms become visible. There is no current cure for Alzheimer's, but treatments for symptoms are available and the research is continued.
- Track 3-1: Hallmarks of AD
- Track 3-2: Stages
- Track 3-3: Diagnosis
- Track 3-4: Treatment
Neurodegenerative diseases consist of wide range of disorders, characterized by the progressive degeneration or death of nerve cells. It affects nerve tissue and causes different neuropsychological manifestations as well. It is an umbrella term for a range of conditions which particularly affect the neurons in the human brain.
Genetic and environmental factors have been shown to play a vital role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Age is one of the major risk factor that is common between all types of neurodegenerative disease as it progresses at older ages commonly.
- Track 4-1: Multiple Sclerosis
- Track 4-2: Neurovascular Dysfunction and Neurodegeneration
- Track 4-3: Cognition
Recent data show that as population’s age, the number of people affected by neurodegenerative dementia is growing at an epidemic pace in various regions of the world.
Around 40 per cent of people over the age of 65 experience some form of memory loss. This kind of memory loss is "age-associated memory impairment," which is considered a part of the normal aging process. But memory loss in Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias are different.
Dementia represents a burgeoning public health problem that already causes untold suffering and threatens to overwhelm health care delivery systems in the coming decades.
One reaction to the approaching pandemic of twisting sickness is the advancement of biomarkers that can help in determination, forecast, choice for clinical trials, and target evaluation of remedial reaction. Imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood-based biomarkers have the potential to improve the accuracy by which specific causes of dementia can be diagnosed in vivo, but more research is required to improve the efficacy.
- Track 6-1: Role of Tau protein
- Track 6-2: Amyloid plaque
There is no one test to identify if someone has dementia. Doctors diagnose dementia based on a careful medical history, a physical examination, laboratory tests, and the characteristic changes in thinking, day-to-day activities and behaviour associated with each type.
It is difficult to determine the exact type of dementia because the symptoms are very similar and brain changes of different dementias can overlap.
- Track 7-1: Neuropsychological tests
- Track 7-2: Cognitive tests
- Track 7-3: Computed tomography
Treatment of dementia depends on its cause. In most of the cases there is no cure and no treatment that slows or stops its progression. Memory treatment has a great impact on dementia patients. It utilizes past frequencies and urge patients to compose and clarify past rates which help in keeping up psychological wellness. Physical exercise has shown some benefits in helping to maintain cognition. Staying engaged and participating in social events may also be helpful.
But there are drug treatments that may temporarily improve symptoms. Ultimately, the path to effective new treatments for dementia is through increased research funding and increased participation in clinical studies & drug development.
- Track 8-1: Combination Therapy
- Track 8-2: Pharmacological treatments
- Track 8-3: Non-pharmacological intervention
There are numerous ways to categories interventions in dementia care, for instance, by the kind of treatment approach used. The chief grouping is by the therapeutic goal, with three considerable spheres recommended: the maintenance of function, including cognitive functions, the management of behaviours that challenge and the reduction of comorbid emotional disorders.
The range of non-pharmacological ‘interventions’ in dementia care is ample and would include the everyday interactions of cares with the person suffering from dementia, the effect of the physical and social conditions and all manner of ‘therapies’, ranging from art sessions to contact with animals.
- Track 9-1: Gene Therapies
- Track 9-2: Reminiscence therapy
- Track 9-3: Physical and cognitive activities
- Track 9-4: Antipsychotic Therapy & medication
- Track 9-5: Mechanism-based therapeutic approaches
- Track 9-6: Music as a therapy
- Track 9-7: Dance as a therapy
There are two types of Alzheimer's treatment trials:
- One aimed at reducing symptoms. During this type of trial, new medicines and variations of existing medicine that reduce the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease are tested.
- Second aimed at slowing or terminating the disease. During this type of trial, new drugs designed to slow or stop Alzheimer's are tested.
Scientists are making great efforts in identifying potential new ways to help diagnose, treat, and even prevent Alzheimer’s and related dementias. Without clinical trials, there can be no better treatments, no prevention and no cure for neurological disease.
- Track 10-1: Vaccine for Dementia
- Track 10-2: Treatment trials
- Track 10-3: Diagnostic studies
- Track 10-4: Prevention trials
- Track 10-5: Quality of life studies
Although detailed clinical appraisal frames the premise of assessing a patient with psychological disability, structural and functional imaging techniques are logically being used. Neuroimaging can recognize changes to supplement the clinical analysis and help to recognize dementia subtypes. This might be critical for treatment, prognosis and care planning.
New imaging strategies convey the expectation of revolutionizing the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease to acquire an entire molecular, structural, and metabolic characterization, which could be used to improve diagnosis and to stage each patient and follow disease progression and response to treatment.
Dementia is a progressive, irreversible decline in cognition that, by definition, impacts on a patient pre-existing level of functioning. The clinical syndrome of dementia has several etiologies of which Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common.
Drug development in AD is based on evolving pathophysiological theory. Disease modifying approaches include the targeting of amyloid processing, aggregation of tau, insulin signalling, neuro-inflammation and neurotransmitter dysfunction, with efforts thus far yielding abandoned hopes and ongoing promise. Reflecting its dominance on the pathophysiological stage the amyloid cascade is central to many of the emerging drug therapies.
- Track 12-1: Breakthrough in Dementia