Hydrology is the study of the distribution and movement of water both on and below the Earth's surface, as well as the impact of human activity on water availability and conditions. Earth science is the study of the Earth's structure, properties, processes, and four and a half billion years of biotic evolution. Understanding these phenomena is essential to maintenance of life on the planet. Earth sciences can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, the large-scale structure of Earth's interior, and the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere
Marine geology or geological oceanography is the study of the history and structure of the ocean floor. It involves geophysical, geochemical, sedimentological and paleontological investigations of the ocean floor and coastal zone Oceanography, scientific discipline concerned with all aspects of the world’s oceans and seas, including their physical and chemical properties, their origin and geologic framework, and the life forms that inhabit the marine environment.
Ecology is the study of organisms, the environment and how the organisms interact with each other and their environment. Ecology is a branch of science, including human science, population, community, ecosystem and biosphere. Ecology also provides information about the benefits of ecosystems and how we can use Earth’s resources in ways that leave the environment healthy for future generations.
Petrology studies all kinds of rocks produced by the nature. Mineralogy and petrology stand as the backbone of the geosciences. Complete knowledge of minerals and rocks and the process of formation and association are mandatory for practicing professionals and advanced students.
Geoscience is a wide-ranging set of disciplines, including all aspects of the study of the solid and molten parts of the Earth and how they interact with our environment. Hutton explained the unconformable relationship between ancient strata in terms of a protracted record of modern Earth processes, and so rejecting the prevalent geologic theory of the time: catastrophism.
Public concern for environmental issues, e.g. emissions of volatile compounds, water pollution through plant nutrients and agrochemicals, has resulted in research and technology development in the field of environmental engineering. Agricultural engineering has therefore to keep pace with trends in science and technology, e.g. fundamental developments in the information and communication technology, biotechnology, materials technology, microelectronics and mechatronics.
Environment health covers Environmental agents and chemical compounds in nature, as well as pharmaceutical compounds which might be synthesized for clinical use by of human beings. Similarly, converting tendencies in health care and an emphasis on prevention, coupled with computer literacy, all support the need for effectively available information about the impacts of hazardous substances in the environment on individual and public health.
Astronomy is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It uses mathematics, physics, and chemistry in order to explain their origin and evolution. Remotely sensed data on natural and anthropogenic features such as vegetation cover, land use, topography, and hydrography now serve as input to a range of simulation models, including hydrologic, climatic, ecological, and economic models.
Environmental Sociology promotes research and professional activities that explore the relationships between social systems and the ecosphere, including interdisciplinary work that explores interactions within and between institutions, social groups, and natural and built environments.
Global warming, is the phenomenon of increasing average air temperatures near the surface of Earth over the past one to two centuries. Global warming has presented another issue called climate change. Biodiversity is all the different kinds of life you'll find in one area—the variety of animals, plants, fungi, and even microorganisms like bacteria that make up our natural world.
Meteorology is the science dealing with the atmosphere and its phenomena, including both weather and climate. Meteorology focuses on the atmospheric variables related to current or near-future conditions. Beyond weather forecasting, meteorology is concerned with long-term trends in climate and weather, and their potential impact on human populations.
Planetary science is the scientific study of planets and their planetary systems which includes moons, ring systems, gas clouds, and magnetospheres. It involves understanding how planetary systems formed, how these systems work and how all their components interact. It is a cross-discipline field including aspects of astronomy, atmospheric science, geology, space physics, biology and chemistry.